• Jarrah Ali Al-Tubaikh


Fluorosis is a clinical condition characterized by excessive ingestion of fluoride, which causes toxicity and systemic manifestations that can be disabling.


Ankylose Spondylitis Dental Fluorosis Niflumic Acid Skeletal Fluorosis Magnesium Salt 
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For Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Mithal A et al Radiological spectrum of endemic fluorosis: relationship with calcium intake. Skelet Radiol. 1993;22:257–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lian Z-C et al Osteoporosis — an early radiographic sign of endemic fluorosis. Skelet Radiol. 1986;15:350–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Whyte MP et al Skeletal fluorosis and instant tea. Am J Med. 2005;118:78–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boillat MA et al Radiological criteria of industrial fluorosis. Skelet Radiol. 1980;5:161–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gupta RK et al Compressive myelopathy in fluorosis: MRI. Neuroradiology. 1996;38:338–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tamer MN et al Osteosclerosis due to endemic fluorosis. Sci Total Environ. 2007;373:43–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jarrah Ali Al-Tubaikh

There are no affiliations available

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