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At birth, infants have fully developed brains—at least from a macroscopic point of view—and the constituents of the brain are easily recognizable in both humans (Arnold and Trojanowski 1996) and nonhuman primates (Rakic and Nowakowski 1981). However, many events need to occur in various areas of the brain once the child is born in order for it to achieve full maturity, and the human hippocampal formation (HF) is no exception. Although the HF is almost completely developed—macroscopically and structurally—by the time of birth, it does mature. This process of maturation includes absolute growth through the expansion of its constituents (Gogtay et al. 2006; Evans 2006), and the functional refinement of its circuitry at both the anatomic and physiologic levels.
KeywordsDown Syndrome Dentate Gyrus Nonhuman Primate Entorhinal Cortex Hippocampal Formation
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