Speech-Based Navigation: Improving Grid-Based Solutions

  • Shaojian Zhu
  • Yao Ma
  • Jinjuan Feng
  • Andrew Sears
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5726)

Abstract

Speech-based technology is a useful alternative to traditional input techniques such as the keyboard and mouse. For people with disabilities that hinder use of traditional input devices, a hands-free speechbased interaction solution is highly desirable. Various speech-based navigation techniques have been discussed in the literature and employed in commercial software applications. Among them, grid-based navigation has shown both potential and limitations. Grid-based solutions allow users to position the cursor using recursive grids to ‘drill down’ until the cursor is in the desired location. We report the results of an empirical study that assessed the efficacy of two enhancements to the grid-based navigation technique: magnification and fine-tuning. Both mechanisms were designed to facilitate the process of selecting small targets. The results suggest that both the magnification and the fine-tuning capabilities significantly improved the participants’ performance when selecting small targets and that fine-tuning also has benefits when selecting larger targets. Participants preferred the solution that provided both enhancements.

Keywords

MouseGrid Speech-based Cursor Control Accessibility 

References

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Oviatt, S.L.: Multimodal interactive maps: Designing for human performance. In: Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 12, pp. 93–129. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Feng, J., Sears, A.: Using confidence scores to improve hands-free speech based navigation in continuous dictation systems. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 11(4), 329–356 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lai, J., Yankelovich, N.: Conversational speech interfaces. In: Jacko, J.A., Sears, A. (eds.) The Human-Computer interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications. Human Factors and Ergonomics, pp. 698–713. L. Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cohen, M.H., Giangola, J.P., Balogh, J.: Voice User Interface Design. Addison Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Redwood City (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oviatt, S.: Multimodal Interfaces. In: Jacko, J.A., Sears, A. (eds.) The Human-Computer interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications, pp. 413–432. L. Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sears, A., Young, M., Feng, J.: Physical Disabilities and Computing Technologies: An Analysis of Impairments. In: Jacko, J.A., Sears, A. (eds.) The Human-Computer interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications. Human Factors and Ergonomics, pp. 829–852. L. Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kamel, H., Landay, J.: The Integrated Communication 2 Draw (IC2D): A drawing program for the visually impaired. In: CHI 1999 (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dai, L., Goldman, R., Sears, A., Lozier, J.: Speech-based cursor control: a study of grid-based solutions. In: Assets 2004: Proceedings of the 6th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility, pp. 94–101. ACM, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Feng, J., Zhu, S., Hu, R., Sears, A.: Speech technology in real world environment: early results from a long term study. In: Assets 2008: Proceedings of the 10th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility, pp. 233–234. ACM, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Halverson, C., Horn, D., Karat, C., Karat, J.: The Beauty of Errors: Patterns of Error Correction in Desktop Speech systems. In: Proc. INTERACT 1999, pp. 1–9 (1999)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Karat, C., Vergo, J., Nahamoo, D.: Conversational Interface Technologies. In: Jacko, J., Sears, A. (eds.) The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook, pp. 169–186. LEA, NJ (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karimullah, A.S., Sears, A.: Speech-based cursor control. In: Proceedings of Assets 2002, pp. 178–185 (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sears, A., Feng, J., Oseitutu, K., Karat, C.: Hands-free, speech-based navigation during dictation: difficulties, consequences, and solutions. Hum.-Comput. Interact. 18(3), 229–257 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kamel, H., Landay, J.: A study of blind drawing practice: Creating graphical information without the visual channel. In: ASSETS 2000 (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kamel, H., Landay, J.: Sketching images eyes-free: A grid-based dynamic drawing tool for the blind. In: ASSETS 2002 (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaojian Zhu
    • 1
  • Yao Ma
    • 2
  • Jinjuan Feng
    • 2
  • Andrew Sears
    • 1
  1. 1.UMBCBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Towson UniversityTowsonUSA

Personalised recommendations