An Angle QIM Watermarking in STDM Framework Robust against Amplitude Scaling Distortions
Quantization index modulation (QIM) watermarking proposed by Chen and Wornell provides computational efficient blind watermarking based on Costa’s dirty paper codes. The limitation of this is its vulnerability against amplitude scaling distortion. The present work is proposed to solve this problem based on angle QIM within spread transform dither modulation (STDM) framework. AQIM embeds the information by quantizing the angle formed by the host-signal vector with respect to the origin of a hyperspherical coordinate system as opposed to quantizing the amplitude of pixel values. It has been shown experimentally that the proposed work not only provides the resistance against this valumetric scaling distortion but also against non-linear, gamma correction and constant luminance change.
KeywordsQuantization index modulation (QIM) STDM watermarking angle QIM valumetric scaling gamma correction
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Gel’fand, S.I., Pinsker, M.S.: Coding for channel with random parameters. Prob. Contr. Inf. Theory 9, 19–31 (1980)Google Scholar
- 6.Miller, M.L., Doerr, G.J., Cox, J.: Dirty-paper trellis codes for watermarking. In: IEEE Int. Conf. Image Process, Rochester, NY, September 2002, vol. 2, pp. 129–132 (2002)Google Scholar
- 7.Bradley, B.: Improvement to CDF grounded lattice codes. In: Proc. SPIE Security, Steganography, Watermarking Multimedia Contents VI, vol. 5306 (January 2004)Google Scholar
- 9.Eggers, J.J., Bauml, R., Girod, B.: Estimation of amplitude modifications before SCS watermark detection. In: Proc. SPIE Security Watermarking Multimedia Contents IV, San Jose, CA, January 2002, vol. 4675, pp. 387–398 (2002)Google Scholar
- 10.Shterev, I.D., Lagendijk, R.L.: Maximum likelihood amplitude scale estimation for quantization-based watermarking in the presence of dither. In: Proc. SPIE Security, Steganography, Watermarking Multimedia Contents VII (January 2005)Google Scholar
- 11.Shterev, I.D., Lagendijk, R.L., Heusdens, R.: Statistical amplitude scale estimation for quantization-based watermarking. In: SPIE Security, Steganography, Watermarking Multimedia Contents VI, vol. 5306 (January 2004)Google Scholar
- 12.Lee, K., Kim, D.S., Kim, T., Moon, K.A.: EM estimation of scale factor for quantization-based audio watermarking. In: Int. Workshop Digital Watermarking, Seoul, Korea (October 2003)Google Scholar
- 15.Oostveen, J., Kalker, T., Staring, M.: Adaptive quantization watermarking. In: Proceedings of SPIE –IS&T Electronic Imaging, vol. 5306, pp. 296–303 (2004)Google Scholar
- 16.Ourique, F., Licks, V., Jordan, R., Perez-Gonzalez, F.: Angle QIM: A novel watermark embedding scheme robust against amplitude scaling distortions. In: International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, pp. 797–800 (2005)Google Scholar
- 17.Chen, B.: Design and Analysis of Digital Watermarking, Information Embedding, and Data Hiding Systems, PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA (June 2000)Google Scholar
- 18.Li, Q., Cox, I.J.: Using perceptual models to improve fidelity and provide invariance to valumetric scaling for quantization index modulation watermarking. Presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Philadelphia, PA (March 2005)Google Scholar
- 20.Moulin, P., Koetter, R.: Data-Hiding Codes. Proceedings of the IEEE 93(12) (December 2005)Google Scholar