The ice sheets on Earth have undergone very large changes over the glacial-interglacial cycles in the past. Today, ice sheets of significant size occur only in Antarctica and Greenland, whereas during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), 21,000 years ago, extended ice sheets also covered large parts of North America, northern Europe, etc. (see Chapter 1). These ice sheets, with typical thicknesses of several kilometres, impose therefore large, time-dependent loads on the crust of the Earth, to which the body of the Earth as a visco-elastic, multi-layer system reacts with a delayed, essentially vertical displacement.
KeywordsLast Glacial Maximum Uplift Rate Land Uplift Elastic Lithosphere Uplift Pattern
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