Constitutive Equations for Polycrystalline Ice

  • Ralf Greve
  • Heinz Blatter
Part of the Advances in Geophysical and Environmental Mechanics and Mathematics book series (AGEM)


The phase of H2O ice which exists at pressure and temperature conditions encountered in ice sheets and glaciers is called ice Ih. It forms hexagonal crystals, that is, the water molecules are arranged in layers of hexagonal rings (Fig. 4.1). The plane of such a layer is called the basal plane, which actually consists of two planes shifted slightly (by 0.0923 nm) against each other. The direction perpendicular to the basal planes is the optic axis or c-axis, and the distance between two adjacent basal planes is 0.276 nm.


Shear Rate Constitutive Equation Stress Exponent Rate Factor Shear Angle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralf Greve
    • 1
  • Heinz Blatter
    • 2
  1. 1.Inst. Low Temperature ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Inst. Atmospheric & Climate ScienceETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations