Preimage Attacks on Reduced Tiger and SHA-2
This paper shows new preimage attacks on reduced Tiger and SHA-2. Indesteege and Preneel presented a preimage attack on Tiger reduced to 13 rounds (out of 24) with a complexity of 2128.5. Our new preimage attack finds a one-block preimage of Tiger reduced to 16 rounds with a complexity of 2161. The proposed attack is based on meet-in-the-middle attacks. It seems difficult to find “independent words” of Tiger at first glance, since its key schedule function is much more complicated than that of MD4 or MD5. However, we developed techniques to find independent words efficiently by controlling its internal variables. Surprisingly, the similar techniques can be applied to SHA-2 including both SHA-256 and SHA-512. We present a one-block preimage attack on SHA-256 and SHA-512 reduced to 24 (out of 64 and 80) steps with a complexity of 2240 and 2480, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, our attack is the best known preimage attack on reduced-round Tiger and our preimage attack on reduced-step SHA-512 is the first result. Furthermore, our preimage attacks can also be extended to second preimage attacks directly, because our attacks can obtain random preimages from an arbitrary IV and an arbitrary target.
Keywordshash function preimage attack second preimage attack meet-in-the-middle Tiger SHA-256 SHA-512
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