Assessment of Psychophysiological Differences of West Point Cadets and Civilian Controls Immersed within a Virtual Environment
An important question for ecologically valid virtual environments is whether cohort characteristics affect immersion. If a method for assessing a certain neurocognitive capacity (e.g. attentional processing) is adapted to a cohort other than the one that was used for the initial normative distribution, data obtained in the new cohort may not be reflective of the neurocognitive capacity in question. We assessed the psychophysiological impact of different levels of immersion upon persons from two cohorts: 1) civilian university students; and 2) West Point Cadets. Cadets were found to have diminished startle eyeblink amplitude compared with civilians, which may reflect that cadets experienced less negative affect during the scenario in general. Further, heart rate data revealed that Cadets had significantly lower heart rates than Civilians in the “low” but not “high” immersion condition. This suggests that “low” immersion conditions may not have the ecological validity necessary to evoke consistent affect across cohorts.
Keywordsvirtual environment psychophysiological assessment immersion ecological validity neuropsychology
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Gordon, M., Barkley, R.A., Lovett, B.J.: Tests and observational measures. In: Barkley, R.A. (ed.) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment, 3rd edn., Guilford, New York, pp. 369–388 (2006)Google Scholar
- 7.Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A.: Neuropsychological Assessment of Attentional Processing using Virtual Reality. Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine 6, 23–28 (2008)Google Scholar
- 8.Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A., Bamattre, J., Brennan, J.: Virtual Reality Cognitive Performance Assessment Test. Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine 5, 163–171 (2007)Google Scholar
- 14.Schwartz, J.M.: Neuroanatomical aspects of cognitive-behavioural therapy response in obsessivecompulsive disorder. An evolving perspective on brain and behaviour. British Journal of Psychiatry Supplemental, 38–44 (1998)Google Scholar
- 19.Meehan, M., Insko, B., Whitton, M., Brooks, F.: Physiological measures of presence in virtual environments. In: Proceedings of 4th Annual Presence Workshop, Philadelphia (May 2002)Google Scholar