Advertisement

Assessment of Psychophysiological Differences of West Point Cadets and Civilian Controls Immersed within a Virtual Environment

  • Thomas D. Parsons
  • Christopher Courtney
  • Louise Cosand
  • Arvind Iyer
  • Albert A. Rizzo
  • Kelvin Oie
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5638)

Abstract

An important question for ecologically valid virtual environments is whether cohort characteristics affect immersion. If a method for assessing a certain neurocognitive capacity (e.g. attentional processing) is adapted to a cohort other than the one that was used for the initial normative distribution, data obtained in the new cohort may not be reflective of the neurocognitive capacity in question. We assessed the psychophysiological impact of different levels of immersion upon persons from two cohorts: 1) civilian university students; and 2) West Point Cadets. Cadets were found to have diminished startle eyeblink amplitude compared with civilians, which may reflect that cadets experienced less negative affect during the scenario in general. Further, heart rate data revealed that Cadets had significantly lower heart rates than Civilians in the “low” but not “high” immersion condition. This suggests that “low” immersion conditions may not have the ecological validity necessary to evoke consistent affect across cohorts.

Keywords

virtual environment psychophysiological assessment immersion ecological validity neuropsychology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Foa, E.B., Kozak, M.J.: Emotional processing of fear: exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin 99, 20–35 (1986)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gordon, M., Barkley, R.A., Lovett, B.J.: Tests and observational measures. In: Barkley, R.A. (ed.) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment, 3rd edn., Guilford, New York, pp. 369–388 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spooner, D.M., Pachana, N.A.: Ecological validity in neuropsychological assessment: A case for greater consideration in research with neurologically intact populations. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 21, 327–337 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dede, C.: Immersive Interfaces for Engagement and Learning. Science 323, 66–69 (2009)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A.: Affective Outcomes of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety and Specific Phobias: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 39, 250–261 (2008)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parsons, T.D., Bowerly, T., Buckwalter, J.G., Rizzo, A.A.: A controlled clinical comparison of attention performance in children with ADHD in a virtual reality classroom compared to standard neuropsychological methods. Child Neuropsychology 13, 363–381 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A.: Neuropsychological Assessment of Attentional Processing using Virtual Reality. Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine 6, 23–28 (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A., Bamattre, J., Brennan, J.: Virtual Reality Cognitive Performance Assessment Test. Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine 5, 163–171 (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A.: Initial Validation of a Virtual Environment for Assessment of Memory Functioning: Virtual Reality Cognitive Performance Assessment Test. Cyberpsychology and Behavior 11, 17–25 (2008)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Parsons, T.D., Silva, T.M., Pair, J., Rizzo, A.A.: A Virtual Environment for Assessment of Neurocognitive Functioning: Virtual Reality Cognitive Performance Assessment Test. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 132, 351–356 (2008)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Parsons, T.D., Larson, P., Kratz, K., Thiebaux, M., Bluestein, B., Buckwalter, J.G., Rizzo, A.A.: Sex differences in mental rotation and spatial rotation in a virtual environment. Neuropsychologia 42, 555–562 (2004)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A., Buckwalter, J.G.: Backpropagation and regression: comparative utility for neuropsychologists. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 26, 95–104 (2004)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A., van der Zaag, C., McGee, J.S., Buckwalter, J.G.: Gender and cognitive performance: a test of the common cause hypothesis. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition 12, 78–88 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schwartz, J.M.: Neuroanatomical aspects of cognitive-behavioural therapy response in obsessivecompulsive disorder. An evolving perspective on brain and behaviour. British Journal of Psychiatry Supplemental, 38–44 (1998)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    De Raedt, R.: Does neuroscience hold promise for the further development of behavior therapy? The case of emotional change after exposure in anxiety and depression. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 47, 225–236 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mineka, S., Watson, D., Clark, L.A.: Comorbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders. Annual Review of Psychology 49, 377–412 (1998)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hariri, A.R., Bookheimer, S.Y., Mazziotta, J.C.: Modulating emotional responses: effects of a neocortical network on the limbic system. Neuroreport 11, 43–48 (2000)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Macedonio, M., Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A.: Immersiveness and Physiological Arousal within Panoramic Video-based Virtual Reality. Cyberpsychology and Behavior 10, 508–516 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Meehan, M., Insko, B., Whitton, M., Brooks, F.: Physiological measures of presence in virtual environments. In: Proceedings of 4th Annual Presence Workshop, Philadelphia (May 2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pugnetti, L., Meehan, M., Mendozzi, L.: Psychophysiological correlates of virtual reality: a review. Presence 10, 384–400 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas D. Parsons
    • 1
  • Christopher Courtney
    • 1
  • Louise Cosand
    • 1
  • Arvind Iyer
    • 1
  • Albert A. Rizzo
    • 1
  • Kelvin Oie
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Southern California’s Institute for Creative Technologies.Marina del ReyUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Army Research Laboratory.USA

Personalised recommendations