The User Knows: Considering the Cognitive Contribution of the User in the Design of Auditory Warnings

  • Catherine Stevens
  • Agnes Petocz
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5639)

Abstract

An experiment that investigated effects of modality, warning type, and task demand on warning recognition speed and accuracy is reported. Using the experiment as a specific example, we argue for the importance of considering the cognitive contribution of the user (viz. prior learned associations) in the warning design process. Drawing on semiotics and cognitive psychology, we highlight the indexical nature of so-called auditory icons or natural indicators and argue that the cogniser is an indispensable element in the tripartite nature of signification.

Keywords

Auditory warnings Workload Modality Icons Semiotics 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ballas, J.A.: Common factors in the identification of an assortment of brief everyday sounds. J. Exp. Psychol: Human Perception and Performance 19, 250–267 (1993)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gaver, W.W.: The Sonic Finder: An interface using auditory icons. In: Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 4, pp. 67–94 (1989)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Keller, P., Stevens, C.: Meaning from environmental sounds: Types of signal-referent relations and their effect on recognizing auditory icons. J. Exp. Psychol: App. 10, 3–12 (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Petocz, A., Keller, P., Stevens, C.: Auditory warnings, signal-referent relations and natural indicators: re-thinking theory and application. J. Exp. Psychol: Applied 14, 165–178 (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Peirce, C.S.: In: Hartshorne, C., Weiss, P. (eds.) Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, vol. II. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1932/1960)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stephan, K.L., Smith, S.E., Martin, R.L., Parker, S.P.A., McAnally, K.: Learning and retention of associations between auditory icons and denotative referents: implications for the design of auditory warnings. Human Factors 48, 288–299 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Graham, R.: Use of auditory icons as emergency warnings: Evaluation within a vehicle collision avoidance application. Ergonomics 42, 1233–1248 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Belz, S.M., Robinson, G.S., Casali, J.G.: A new class of auditory warning signals for complex systems: Auditory icons. Human Factors 41, 608–618 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McKeown, D., Isherwood, S.: Mapping candidate within-vehicle auditory displays to their referents. Human Factors 49, 417–428 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Patterson, R.D.: Guidelines for Auditory Warning Systems on Civil Aircraft (Paper No. 82017). Civil Aviation Authority, London (1982)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gaver, W.W., Smith, R.B., O’Shea, T.: Effective sounds in complex systems: The ARKola simulation. In: Conf. on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 1991), pp. 85–90. Association for Computing Machinery, New York (1991)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Perry, N., Stevens, C., Wiggins, M., Howell, C.: Cough once for danger: An experimental investigation of auditory icons as informative warning signals in civil aviation. Human Factors 49, 1061–1071 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine Stevens
    • 1
  • Agnes Petocz
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Psychology & MARCS Auditory LaboratoriesUniversity of Western SydneySouth Penrith DCAustralia

Personalised recommendations