Carbon – Niobium – Tungsten

Refractory metal systems: phase diagrams, crystallographic and thermodyamic data
  • Materials Science International Team, MSIT ®
  • Pierre Perrot
  • Nathalie Lebrun
Part of the Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV Physical Chemistry book series (volume 11E2)


This document is part of Volume 11 ‘Ternary Alloy Systems: Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data’, Subvolume E ‘Refractory Metal Systems’, of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV ‘Physical Chemistry’.

It contains crystallographic and thermodynamic data about the ternary alloy system:C-Nb-W

Parent documents:

SpringerMaterials home



refractory metal system crystallographic data lattice parameter Pearson symbol space group thermodynamic data binary systems solid phases invariant equilibria isothermal section temperature-composition section material properties applications 


  1. [1930Agt]
    Agte, C., Alterthum, H., “Investigations on the High Melting Carbide Systems in Relation with the Problem of Carbon Melting” (in German), Z. Techn. Physik, 11(6), 182–2 (1930) (Experimental, Morphology, Phase Relations, 20)Google Scholar
  2. [1943Uma]
    Umansky, Ya.S., “The Carbides of Hard Alloys and Related Materials” (in Russian), Izv. Sekt. Fiziko-Khimich. Analiza, 16(1), 127–2 (1943) (Crys. Structure, Experimental, Phase Relations, 8)Google Scholar
  3. [1946Kov]
    Kovalsky, A.E., Umansky, Ya.S., “Interaction of Monocarbides of W, Ta and Nb (X-ray analysis). II.” (in Russian), Zh. Fiz. Khim., 20(8), 773–2 (1946) (Crys. Structure, Experimental, Morphology, Phase Relations, 2)Google Scholar
  4. [1947Now]
    Nowotny, H., Kieffer, R., “Crystallographic Investigations on Carbide Systems” (in German), Metallforschung, 2(9), 257–2 (1947) (Experimental, Crys. Structure, 33)Google Scholar
  5. [1963Rud]
    Rudy, E., “Thermodynamics of Phase Relations in Ternary Systems. II”, Z. Metallkd., 54, 213–2 (1963) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Thermodyn., Calculation, 23)Google Scholar
  6. [1965Kie]
    Kiefer, R., Benesovsky, F., “3. WC-TaC(NbC)-Co-Refractory Metals, 4. WC-TiC-TaC(NbC)-Co-Refractory Metals” (in German), in “Hartmetalle”, Wien, New York, Springer-Verlag, 202-2 (1965) (Phys. Prop., Mechan. Prop., Review, 21)Google Scholar
  7. [1966Fun]
    Funke, V.F., Panov, V.S., “Structure and Properties of Solid Solutions of WC in TiC, NbC and TaC”, Russ. Metall., (6), 80–82 (1966), translated from Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Met., (6), 146–2 (1966) (Crys. Structure, Mechan. Prop., Electrical Prop., 5)Google Scholar
  8. [1967Mal]
    Malashenko, I.S., “Influence of Carbon on the Structure and Strength of Niobium and Niobium Alloys”, Russ. Metall., (3), 72–75 (1967), translated from Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Metally, (3), 159–2 (1967) (Mechan. Prop., Experimental, 20)Google Scholar
  9. [1967Rud]
    Rudy, E., Progulski, J., “A Pirani Furnace for the Precision Determination of the Melting Temperatures of Refractory Metallic Substances”, Planseeber. Pulvermetall., 15(1), 13–2 (1967) (Phase Relations, Experimental, 106)Google Scholar
  10. [1967Tay]
    Taylor, A., Doyle, N.J., “The Solid-Solubility of Carbon in Nb and Nb-Rich Nb-Hf, Nb-Mo and Nb-W Alloys”, J. Less-Common Met., 13, 511–2 (1967) (Crys. Structure, Experimental, Morphology, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, 15)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [1968Pan]
    Panov, V.S., Meerson, G.A., “Preparation and Study of Some Properties of NbC-WC and TaC-WC Alloys”, Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 7(5), 375–381 (1968), translated from Poroshk. Metall., 5(65), 46–2 (1968) (Crys. Structure, Experimental, Mechan. Prop., Electr. Prop., 7)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [1969Lyu]
    Lyubimov, V.D., Geld, P.V., Bogomolov, G.D., Tskhay, V.A., Shveykin, G.P., “Diffusion of Carbon in Alloys of Niobium with Titanium, Zirconium, Tungsten and Molybdenum”, Russ. Metall., (3), 154–158 (1969), translated from Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met., (3), 201–2 (1969) (Transport Phenomena, Experimental, 12)Google Scholar
  13. [1969Rud]
    Rudy, E., “Part V. Compendium of Phase Diagram Data. Section III-E-13: Nb-W-C System” in “Ternary Phase Equilibria in Transition Metal - Boron - Carbon - Silicon Systems”, Technical Report AFML-TR-65-2, Part V, Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 455-2 (1969) (Crys. Structure, Experimental, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, 2)Google Scholar
  14. [1972Kov]
    Kovalchenko, M.S., Bogomol, I.V., Serebryakova, T.I., “Investigation of Hot Pressing Kinetics in Alloys Made of Titanium and Tungsten Carbides Cemented with Niobium”, Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 11(6), 441–445 (1972), translated from Poroshk. Metall., 6(114), 15–2 (1972) (Experimental, Kinetics, Mechan. Prop., 11)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [1973Ere]
    Eremenko, V.N., Velikanova, T.Ya., “Structure of Phase Diagrams for the (Molybdenum, Tungsten)-(Titanium, Zirconium, Hafnium, Vanadium, Niobium, Tantalum)-Carbon Ternary System” (in Russian), in “Obshch. Zakonomern. Str. Diagramm Sost. Met. Sist.”, Ageev, V.N. (Ed.), Akad. Nauk SSSR, Nauka, Moscow, 49–2 (1973) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Review, 23)Google Scholar
  16. [1973Sav]
    Savitsky, E.M., Povarova, K.B., Makarov, P.V., Ugaste, Yu.E., “Tungsten Corners of the W-C-Me (Nb, Ta, Re,) Systems” (in Russian), in “Obshch. Zakonom. Str. Diagramm Sost. Met. Sist.”, Ageev, N.V. (Ed.), Akad. Nauk SSSR, Nauka, Moscow, 139–2 (1973) (Experimental, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, 7)Google Scholar
  17. [1974Sav]
    Savitsky, E.M., Povarova, K.B., Makarov, V.V., “Phase Analysis of Alloys in the W Corner of the System W-Nb-C” (in Russian), in “Struktura Faz, Faz. Prevrashcheniya i Diagrammy Sostoyaniya Metal. Sistem”, Ivanov, O.S., Alekseeva, Z.M., (Eds.), Nauka, Moscow, 120–2 (1974) (Crys. Structure, Experimental, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, 6)Google Scholar
  18. [1974Vel]
    Velikanova, T.Ya., Eremenko, V.N., “Phase Equilibria in the Ternary Systems Formed by Molybdenum and Tungsten with the Groups IV and V Transition Metals and Carbon”, Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 13(4), 293–297 (1974), translated from Poroshk. Metall., 4(136), 46–2 (1974) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Review, 40)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [1975Pod]
    Podjyachev, V.N., Gavrilyuk, M.I., “Properties of Tungsten Alloys with Carbon, Niobium, Tantalum, and Zirconium”, Met. Sci. Heat Treat., 17(4), 299–302 (1975), translated from Metall. Term. Obrab. Met., (4), 24–2 (1975) (Experimental, Mechan. Prop., 6)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [1977Koz]
    Kozlova, M.N., Lashko, N.F., Bogina, N.Kh., Gavrilyuk, M.I., Rudneva, N.M., Mishina, A.A., “Phase Analysis of Tungsten Alloys”, Industr. Labor., 43(4), 491–494 (1977), translated from Zavod. Lab., 43(4), 413–2 (1977) (Experimental, Phase Relations, 3)Google Scholar
  21. [1977Sav]
    Savitsky, E.M., Povarova, K.B., Makarov, P.V., Zavarzina, Ya.K., “Phase Composition, Structure and Properties of Vacuum-Melted W-C-(Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Re) Alloys” (in German), Planseeber. Pulvermet., 25(3), 168–2 (1977) (Experimental, Morphology, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Mechan. Prop., 17)Google Scholar
  22. [1981Hol]
    Holleck, H., “Ternary Carbide Systems of the Transition Metals of the 4, 5 and 6 Groups” (in German), in “Binäre und Ternäre Carbide und Nitride der Übergangsmetalle und Ihre Phasen-Beziehungen”, Habil. 1980, KFZ Karlsruhe, 134–2 (1981) (Crys. Structure, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Review, 102)Google Scholar
  23. [1983Moi]
    Moiseev, G.K., Vatolin, N.A., Popov, S.K., “Formation of Solid Solutions in the Systems Nb-C-(Ti, Zr, W) in the High-Temperature Reaction of the Oxides with Carbon”, Inorg. Mater., 19(9), 1305–1310 (1983), translated from Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Neorg. Mater., 19(9), 1478–2 (1983) (Phase Relations, Thermodyn., Calculation, 18)Google Scholar
  24. [1984Hol]
    Holleck, H., “Ternary Carbide Systems of the Transition Metals of the 4, 5, 6 Groups” (in German), in “Binaere und Ternaere Carbid- und Nitridsysteme der Uebergangsmetalle”, Petzow, G. (Ed.), Gebrueder Borntraeger, Berlin, Stuttgart, 6, 114–2 (1984) (Crys. Structure, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Review, 106)Google Scholar
  25. [1984Sav]
    Savitsky, E.M., Povarova, K.B., Makarov, P.V., Khmelkova, M.A., Zavarzina, E.K., “Refractory Phases in Powder Metallurgy Tungsten Alloys” in “Sintered Metal-Ceramic Composites”, Upadhyaya, G.S. (Ed.), Elsevier Science Publ., Amsterdam, 279–2 (1984) (Phase Relations, Mechanical Prop., Experimental, 9)Google Scholar
  26. [1988Vel]
    Velikanova, T.Ya., Eremenko, V.N., “Relationships Governing Phase Equilibria in Refractory Carbide-Bearing Systems of Transition Metals”, Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 27, 145–149 (1988), translated from Poroshk. Metall., 2(302), 63–2 (1988) (Review, Theory, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, 21)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [1993Dal]
    Dal, B.F., Hardin, S.G., Hay, D.G., Turney, T.W., “Selective, Low-Temperature Synthesis of Niobium Carbide and a Mixed (Niobium-Tungsten) Carbide from Metal Oxide-Polyacrylonitrile Composites by Carbothermal Reduction”, J. Mater. Sci., 28(24), 6657–2 (1993) (Experimental, Morphology, 17)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. [1994McH]
    McHale, A.E., “XI. Carbon Plus Two Metals” in “Phase Equilibria Diagrams, Phase Diagrams for Ceramists”, McHale, A.E. (Ed.), Ceramic Div., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., Gaithersburg, Maryland, 10, 342–2 (1994) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Review, 3)Google Scholar
  29. [1997Hua1]
    Huang, W., Selleby, M., “Thermodynamic Assessment of the Nb-W-C System”, Z. Metallkd., 88(1), 55–2 (1997) (Assessment, Experimental, Phase Relations, Review, Thermodyn., 24)Google Scholar
  30. [1997Hua2]
    Huang, W., “Thermodynamic Properties of the Nb-W-C-N System”, Z. Metallkd., 88(1), 63–2 (1997) (Experimental, Phase Relations, Review, Thermodyn., 20)Google Scholar
  31. [1998Rog]
    Rogl, P., “The Boron-Carbon-Niobium System” in “Phase Diagrams of Ternary Metal-Boron-Carbon”, Effenberg, G. (Ed.), MSI, ASM Intl., Materials Park, OH, 197–2 (1998) (Crys. Structure, Review, Phase Diagrams, Phase Relations, 25)Google Scholar
  32. [2004Kub]
    Kublii, V.Z., Velikanova, T.Ya., “Ordering in the Carbide W2C and Phase Equilibria in the System Tungsten-Carbon in the Range of its Existence” (in Russian), Poroshk. Metall. (Kiev), (11–12), 101–2 (2004) (Crys. Structure, Experimental, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, 24)Google Scholar
  33. [2008Vel]
    Velikanova, T.Ya., Private Communication at the 22nd MSIT Meeting, Castle Ringberg (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Materials Science International Team, MSIT ®
    • 1
  • Pierre Perrot
  • Nathalie Lebrun
  1. 1.Materials Science International Services GmbHStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations