Carbon – Chromium – Nickel

Refractory metal systems: phase diagrams, crystallographic and thermodyamic data
  • Materials Science International Team, MSIT ®
  • Volodymyr Ivanchenko
  • Elena Semenova
  • Peter Rogl
  • Jo Fenstad
Part of the Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV Physical Chemistry book series (volume 11E2)


This document is part of Volume 11 ‘Ternary Alloy Systems: Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data’, Subvolume E ‘Refractory Metal Systems’, of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV ‘Physical Chemistry’.

It contains crystallographic and thermodynamic data about the ternary alloy system:C-Cr-Ni

Parent documents:

SpringerMaterials home



refractory metal system crystallographic data lattice parameter Pearson symbol space group thermodynamic data binary systems solid phases invariant equilibria isothermal section temperature-composition section material properties applications 


  1. [1940Mur]
    Murakami, T., Takeda, S., Mutsuzaki, K., Murase, T., “The Equilibrium Diagram of the Ni-C-Cr System” (in Japanese), Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi, 4(7), 192–198 (1940) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Experimental, Magn. Prop., 12)Google Scholar
  2. [1949Jae]
    Jaenecke, E., “C-Cr-Ni” (in German) in “Kurzgefasstes Handbuch aller Legierungen”, Winter Verlag, Heidelberg, 478–479 (1949) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Review, 1)Google Scholar
  3. [1952Edw]
    Edwards, R., Raine, T., “The Solid Solubilities of Some Stable Carbides in Cobalt, Nickel and Iron at 1250°C” in “Pulvermetallurgie: Papers Presented at the Plansee-Seminar De Re Metallica”, Benesovsky, F. (Ed.), Springer, Vienna, (1), 232–242 (1952) (Morphology, Phase Relations, Experimental, 5)Google Scholar
  4. [1953Gar]
    Gardner, A.G., “The Hard Carbides: Their Properties and Application to the Production of Sintered Hard Metal”, Metallurgia, 163–170 (1953) (Phase Relations, Experimental, Mechan. Prop., 0)Google Scholar
  5. [1955Koe]
    Koester, W., Kabermann, S., “The Ternary System Ni-C-Cr” (in German), Arch. Eisenhuettenwesen, 26M(10), 627–630 (1955) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Experimental, 6)Google Scholar
  6. [1959Roe]
    Roesch, K., Zeuner, H., “The Influence of Molybdenum on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties at High Temperature in the Cast, High-Temperature Nickel-Chromium Alloy” (in German), Giesserei, 46, 202–215 (1959) (Morphology, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Experimental, 11)Google Scholar
  7. [1963Sch]
    Schenck, H., Frohberg, M.G., Steinmetz, E., “Investigations on the Mutual Activities Influence in Homogeneous Metallic Substances Solubility. Part I. Experimental Investigations of Manganese-Carbon-X, Cobalt-Carbon-X, Nickel-Carbon-X Systems in Liquid State” (in German), Arch. Eisenhuettenwesen, 34(1), 37–42 (1963) (Experimental, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Thermodyn., Review, 30)Google Scholar
  8. [1966Yas]
    Yasinskaya, G.A., “Weldability of Carbides, Borides and Nitrides with Liquid Metals” (in Russian), Poroshk. Metall. (Kiev), 7(43), 53–55 (1966) (Phase Relations, Experimental, Mechan. Prop., 5)Google Scholar
  9. [1971Tel]
    Telegus, V.S., Kuzma, Yu.B., “The Investigation of the Transition Metals of the Fourth Group with Carbon”, Visn. L’viv. Derz. Univ., Ser. Khim., (12), 28–33 (1971) (Crys. Structure, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Experimental, 16)Google Scholar
  10. [1974Loe]
    Loebl, K., Tuma, H., Ciznerova, M., “Activity of C in the Ni-C-Cr System in the C Solubility Zone” (in French), Mem. Sci. Rev. Met., 71(5), 271–279 (1974) (Thermodyn., Experimental, Phys. Prop., 19)Google Scholar
  11. [1975Tum]
    Tuma, H., Ciznerova, M., “Activity of C in the Ni-C-Cr System in the Precipitation Region of Cr7C3”, Kovove Mater., 13(6), 779–782 (1975) (Experimental, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, 3)Google Scholar
  12. [1975Ale]
    Alekseev, V.I., Parnis, M.M., “Determination of Carbon Thermodynamic Activity in Nickel-Chromium Carbon Alloys” (in Russian), Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 224(2), 355–358 (1975) (Thermodyn., Experimental, 16)Google Scholar
  13. [1978Spe]
    Spencer, P.J., Chart, T.G., “Summary of Proceedings of the Seventh Calphad Meeting”, Calphad, 2(3), 197–205 (1978) (Crys. Structure, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Thermodyn., Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [1979Ale]
    Alekseev, V.I., Degtyareva, I.V., “Thermodynamics of the Formation of Chromium Carbides in Nickel Alloys”, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 53(4), 495–497 (1979), translated from Zh. Fiz. Khim., 53(4), 876–880 (1979), (Thermodyn., Experimental, 10)Google Scholar
  15. [1979Mou]
    Moulin, P., Huntz, A.M., Lacombe, P., “Effect of Carbon on Volume Diffusion of Chromium and Nickel and on Grain-boundaries of 80-20 Cr-Ni Alloy” (in French), Acta Metall., 27(9), 1431–1443 (1979) (Morphology, Thermodyn., Experimental, Mechan. Prop., 17)Google Scholar
  16. [1981Ale]
    Alekseev, V.I., Degtyareva, I.V., Levshin, G.A., “Thermodynamic Properties of Ni-C-Cr Ni-Ti, Ni-Ti-C Alloys and Solubility of Exceed Phases in the Matrix Based on Nickel” in “Phase Diagrams of Metal Systems, Thermodynamic and Experimental Methods”, Ageev, N.V., (Ed.), Nauka, Moscow, 91–98 (1981) (Thermodyn., Experimental, Phase Relations, 6)Google Scholar
  17. [1981Guz]
    Guzey, L.S., Kuznetsov, V.N., Sokolovskaya, Ye.M., “Application of Quasichemical Model for Calculation of C Solubility in Ni-based Alloys” in “Phase Diagram of Metal System”, Ageev, N.V. (Ed.), Nauka, Moscow, 103–106 (1981) (Phase Relations, Thermodyn., Calculation, 9)Google Scholar
  18. [1982Tum]
    Tuma, H., Ciznerova, M., “A Thermodynamic Study and the Equilibrium Diagram of the System Ni-C-Cr in the Nickel Rich Corner at Temperatures between 1000 and 1200°C”, Kovove Mater., 20(4), 426–443 (1982) (Morphology, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Experimental, Kinetics, 14)Google Scholar
  19. [1982Bla]
    Blank, E., Luchsinger, E., Rappaz, M., “Abrasive Wear of As-Solidified Ni-C-Cr Alloys”, J. Metals, 34(12), 7–8 (1982) (Abstract, 3)Google Scholar
  20. [1983Bla]
    Blank, E., Rappaz, M., “Localization of Plastic Deformation in Dendritic Two-Phase Ni-C-Cr Monocrystals Investigated by X-Ray Topography and X-Ray Microbeam Diffraction”, J. Metals, 35(8), 49 (1983) (Abstract, 2)Google Scholar
  21. [1986Hoe]
    Hoerz, G., Flad, K., “Thermodynamics and Kinetics of the Carburization of Nickel and Nickel-Chromium Alloys at High Temperatures”, J. Electrochem. Soc., 133(8), 308C (1986) (Abstract, 2)Google Scholar
  22. [1986Rap]
    Rappaz, M., Blank, E., “Simulation of Oriented Dendritic Microstructures Using the Concept of Dendritic Lattice”, J. Cryst. Growth, 74(1), 67–76 (1986) (Morphology, Experimental, 12)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. [1986Bon]
    Bongart, K., Schulten, R., Quadakkers, W.J., Nickel, H., “A Finite Difference Model Describing Carburization in High-Temperature Alloys”, Corrosion, 42, 390–397 (1986) (Crys. Structure, Morphology, Phase Relations, Thermodyn., Experimental, Calculation, Kinetics, 12)Google Scholar
  24. [1986Nas]
    Nash, P., “The Cr-Ni System”, Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams, 7(5), 466–476 (1986) (Crys. Structure, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Thermodyn., Review,)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  25. [1987And]
    Andersson, J.O., Sundman, B., “Thermodynamic Properties of C-Cr”, Calphad, 11(2), 271–276 (1987) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Thermodyn., Calculation, 32)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [1987Bla]
    Blank, E., Luchsinger, E., “Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cast Ni-C-Cr Alloys”, Wear, 117, 289–308 (1987) (Morphology, Thermodyn., Experimental, Interface Phenomena, Kinetics, 22)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [1987Ere]
    Eremenko, V.N., “C-(V, Ti, Mo, Cr, Hf, Zr)” (in Russian), in “Physical Chemistry of Inorganic Materials: Thermodynamics of Intermetallic Compounds and Phase Equilibria in Metallic Systems”, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1, 1–328 (1988) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Experimental, 70)Google Scholar
  28. [1987Hor]
    Horz, G., “High Temperature Corrosion Behavior of Nickel-Chromium Alloys in Carburizing Environments”, J. Electrochem. Soc., 134(8B), 467C (1987) (Abstract, 1)Google Scholar
  29. [1987Pad]
    Paderno, V.N., Martynenko, A.N., Tashlyk, B.N., Furman, V.V., “Effect of the Heat-Treatment Parameters and of the Composition of Electrophoretic Coatings on the Microstructure and the Nature of Failure of Carbide-Chromium Materials. 1. Substrate of Carbide-Chromium Alloy with Nickel Bond”, Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 26(4), 322–327 (1987), translated from Poroshk. Metall., 4(292), 61–67 (1987) (Morphology, Phase Relations, Experimental, 10)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [1987Rap]
    Rappaz, M., Blank, E., “Combined X-ray Microdiffraction and Topography Experiment for Microstructural Analysis of Heterogeneous Materials”, J. Mater. Sci., 22(3), 896–906 (1987) (Morphology, Experimental, 25)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. [1987Hoe]
    Hoerz, G., “High Temperature Corrosion Behavior of Nickel-Chromium Alloys in Carburizing Environments”, J. Electrochem. Soc., 134(8B), 467C (1987) (Abstract, 1)Google Scholar
  32. [1988Zvo]
    Zvonarev, E.V., Maksimenko, V.N., Ionkina, E.M., “Structure Formation During the Sintering of a Chromium Carbide-Nickel Hard Metal from Powders Processed by Dynamic Loading”, Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 27(2), 107–111 (1988), translated from Poroshk. Metall., 2(302), 20–25 (1988) (Morphology, Crys. Structure, Phase Relations, Experimental, Kinetics, 12)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [1988Kop]
    Kopylov, A.A., Bogayevskiy, V.V., Pisarev, B.K., Lesnikov, V.P., Kopylova, V.A., Poleva, V.V., “Carbide Transformations in a Nickel γ and γ’ Alloy During Prolonged Ageing”, Phys. Met. Metallogr. (Engl. Transl.), 66(2), 96–101 (1988), translated from Fiz. Met. Metalloved., 66(2), 313–317 (1988) (Morphology, Phase Relations, Experimental, 6)Google Scholar
  34. [1989Hun]
    Huntz, A.M., Puig, T., Confignal, L., Charpentier, F., Condat, M., “Laser Melting of a NiCr Alloy Precoated with Carbon: High-Temperature Oxidation and Wear Resistance”, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 121, 555–561 (1989) (Morphology, Thermodyn., Experimental, Mechan. Prop., 13)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [1989Du]
    Du, S., Seetharamam, S., Staffansson, L.I., Research at Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, unpublished research, (1989) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Thermodyn., #) as quoted in [1990Kaj]Google Scholar
  36. [1989Sin]
    Singleton, M., Nash, P., “The C-Ni System”, Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams, 10(2), 121–126 (1989) (Crys. Structure, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Review, 41)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [1990Kaj]
    Kajihara, M., Hillert, M., “Thermodynamic Evaluation of the Cr-Ni-C System”, Metall. Trans. A, 21(10), 2777–2787 (1990) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Thermodyn., Calculation, 36)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [1990Ven]
    Venkatraman, M., Neumann, J.P., “The C-Cr (Carbon-Chromium) System”, Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams, 11(2), 152–159 (1990) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Crys. Structure, Review, 76)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [1991Kal]
    Kallfass, M., Hoerz, G., “Metallographic Investigations of Cast and Carburized NiCr 8020 Alloys”, Prakt. Metallogr., 28(9), 455–467 (1991) (Morphology, Experimental, 12)Google Scholar
  40. [1991Nas]
    Nash, P., “Cr-Ni” in “Phase Diagrams of Binary Nickel Alloys”, Nash, P. (Ed.), ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 75–84 (1991) (Crys. Structure, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Thermodyn., Review, #, 126)Google Scholar
  41. [1992Lee]
    Lee, B.J., “On the Stability of Cr Carbides”, Calphad, 16(2), 121–149 (1992) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Thermodyn., Calculation, 83)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [1993Bon]
    Bondar, A.A., Maslyuk, V.A., Grytsiv, A.V., “Effect of the Composition of the Original Chromium Carbide on the Structure and Properties of Chromium Carbide-Nickel (KKhN) Alloys” (in Russian) in “Fazovie Ravnoves. Stabiln. Faz i Metastabiln. Sost. Metall. Sistemah”, Sb. Nauchn. Tr. Inst. Probl. Materialoved. im. I.N. Frantsevicha Akad. Nauk Ukrainy, Kiev, 148–153 (1993) (Phase Relations, Phase Diagram, Experimental, 4)Google Scholar
  43. [1993Chu]
    Chuprina, V.G., Shalya, I.M., Shurkhal, V.V., “Formation of Chromium Coatings Alloyed with Nickel on Diamond”, Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 32(1), 45–49 (1993), translated from Poroshk. Metall., 1(361), 47–51 (1993) (Morphology, Experimental, 15)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [1994Eng]
    Engstrom, A., Hoglund, L., Agren, J., “Computer Simulation of Diffusion in Multiphase Systems”, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 25(6), 1127–1134 (1994) (Thermodyn., Kinetics, Interface Phenomena, Theory, Calculation, 21)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [1994McH]
    McHale, A.E., “XI. Carbon Plus Two Metals” in “Phase Equilibria Diagrams, Phase Diagrams for Ceramists”, McHale, A.E. (Ed.), Ceramics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 10, 284–285 (1994) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Review, 17)Google Scholar
  46. [1995Tom]
    Tomiska, J., Kopecky, K., Belegratis, M.S., Myers, C., “Thermodynamic Mixing Functions and Phase Equilibria in the Nickel-Chromium System by High-Temperature Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry”, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 26A(2), 259–265 (1995) (Phase Relations, Thermodyn., Experimental, #, 49)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [1996Bon]
    Bondar, A.A., Velikanova, T.Ya, “Aspects of Construction of the Constitution Diagrams of Ternary Systems Formed by Chromium with Carbon and d-Transition Metals”, Powder Metall. Met. Cer., 35(7–8), 484–496 (1996), translated from Poroshk. Metall., 7–8, 182–196 (1996) (Phase Relations, Review, 40)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [1997Bon]
    Bondar, A.A., Maslyuk, V.A., Velikanova, T.Ya., Grytsiv, A.V., “Phase Equilibria in the Cr-Ni-C System and their Use for Developing Physicochemical Principles for Design of Hard Alloys Based on Chromium Carbide”, Powder Metall. Met. Cer., 36(5–6), 242–252 (1997) (Phase Relations, Review, 26)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [1997Oka]
    Okamoto, H., “Cr-Ni”, J. Phase Equilib., 18(2), 221 (1997) (Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Review, 4)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [1998Dur]
    Duran, C., Eroglu, S., “Liquid-Phase Sintering and Properties of Cr3C2/NiCr Cermets”, J. Mat. Proc. Tech., 74(1–3), 69–73 (1998) (Morphology, Thermodyn., Experimental, Mechan. Prop., 6)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [1999Vel]
    Velikanova, T.Ya., Bondar, A.A., Grytsiv, A.V., “The Chromium-Nickel-Carbon (Cr-Ni-C) Phase Diagram”, J. Phase Equilib., 20(2), 125–147 (1999) (Crys. Structure, Morphology, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Experimental, 28)Google Scholar
  52. [1999Mur]
    Murata, H., Takeuchi, J., Harada, Y., Tomita, T., Go, T., Nakahama, S., “Microstructures of Cr3C2-NiCr Sprayed Coatings Modified by Chromium Diffusion Treatment” (in Japanese), J. Jpn. Inst. Met., 63(1), 126–134 (1999) (Morphology, Thermodyn., Experimental, 27)Google Scholar
  53. [2000Bor]
    Borgenstam, A., Engstroem, A., Hoeglund, L., Agren, J., “DICTRA, a Tool for Simulation of Diffusional Transformations in Alloys”, J. Phase Equilib., 21(3), 269–280 (2000) (Thermodyn., Calculation, Kinetics, 59)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [2003Ant]
    Antsiferov, V.N., Khramtsov, V.D., “Preparation of High-Porosity Permeable Cellular Material Based on Chromium Carbide with Nickel Binder”, Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 42(11–12), 603–606 (2003), translated from Poroshk. Metall., 11–12(434), 72–76 (2003) (Morphology, Experimental, 6)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [2003Mat]
    Matthews, S., Hyland, M., James, B., “Microhardness Variation in Relation to Carbide Development in Heat Treated Cr3C2-NiCr Thermal Spray Coatings”, Acta Mater., 51(14), 4267–4277 (2003) (Morphology, Phase Relations, Experimental, Mechan. Prop., 24)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [2005Li]
    Li, J.F., Li, L., Ding, C.X., “Thermal Diffusivity of Plasma-Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings”, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 394(1–2), 229–237 (2005) (Morphology, Experimental, Interface Phenomena, Transport Phenomena, 27)Google Scholar
  57. [2006Jin]
    Jincheng, X., Liang, Z., Xiaoyan, D., Hui, Y., “High Temperature Simulation of Short Carbon Fiber-reinforced Nickel Base Composite”, Materials Design, 27(10), 1152–1156 (2006) (Morphology, Experimental, 11)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [2006Kwo]
    Kwon, H.-J., Kang, S., “Instability of Solid/Liquid Interface in Transitional Metal Carbide Systems”, J. Mater. Sci., 41(14), 4649–4653 (2006) (Morphology, Phase Relations, Experimental, Interface Phenomena, 10)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. [2006Pir]
    Pirso, J., Viljus, M., Letunovits, S., Juhani, K., “Reactive Carburizing Sintering: A Novel Production Method for High Quality Chromium Carbide/Nickel Cermets”, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 24, 263–270 (2006) (Crys. Structure, Morphology, Experimental, Kinetics, Mechan. Prop., 29)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [2007Sid]
    Sidhu, T.S., Prakash, S., Agrawal, R.D., “Study of Molten Salt Corrosion of High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Sprayed Cermet and Nickel-Based Coatings at 900°C”, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 38(1), 77–85 (2007) (Crys. Structure, Morphology, Phase Relations, Experimental, Interface Phenomena, Kinetics, 25)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [2008Bon]
    Bondar, A.A., “C-Cr (Carbon-Chromium)”, MSIT Binary Evaluation Program, in MSIT Workplace, Effenberg, G. (Ed.), MSI, Materials Science International Services, GmbH, Stuttgart; to be published, (2008) (Crys. Structure, Phase Diagram, Phase Relations, Review, 23)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Materials Science International Team, MSIT ®
    • 1
  • Volodymyr Ivanchenko
  • Elena Semenova
  • Peter Rogl
  • Jo Fenstad
  1. 1.Materials Science International Services GmbHStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations