Spirituality in Management Theories: A Perspective from India

  • S. N. Balagangadhara


In Chap. 4, Balagangadhara explores two ways of marrying economic and management theories to religion and spirituality: the “Western, Judeo-Christian approach” and “an Indian, heathen” one. He draws on observation and experience to explore human beings’ limitless desires, greed, needs, and wants in terms of these two worldviews and corresponding modes of functioning. He then proposes an alternative view that opens up the potential for the happiness and fulfillment that is the potential of each human being.


  1. Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Bros. Second edition, 1970.Google Scholar
  2. Zsolnai, L. (ed). (2004). Spirituality and ethics in management. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar

Further Readings

  1. Balagangadhara, S. N. (2005). How to speak for the Indian traditions: An agenda for the future. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 73(4), 987–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gannon, M. J., & Newman, K. L. (2002). The Blackwell handbook of cross-cultural management. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  3. Haidt, J. (2005). The happiness hypothesis: Finding modern truth in ancient wisdom. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  4. Kay, J. (2004). The truth about markets: Why some nations are rich but most remain poor. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. N. Balagangadhara
    • 1
  1. 1.Sint-Denij-WestremBelgium

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