Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Tropical Land

  • Preeti SaxenaEmail author
  • Neelam Misra
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 19)


Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have resulted into the eventual release of huge amounts of chemicals (organic/inorganic) into the tropical environment, either deliberately for agricultural and industrial purposes, or accidentally through the mishandling of chemicals. The release of heavy metals into the terrestrial ecosystem is a major problem. The tropical ecosystem is the largest in the world, and has a high population density. Soil acidity is a major problem in this ecosystem, and this soil acidity means that metals can be easily mobilized, causing a serious risk to the terrestrial environment. Heavy metals in soil pose a serious ecological risk as these metals cannot be degraded or permanently removed from the land. The development of methods for the in situ remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils is needed to make such soils acceptable for agriculture.

In this chapter, various methods of remediating heavy metal contaminated land are described. It is known that microorganisms are present in almost every environment on Earth and that they are capable of degrading and minimizing a broad range of toxic chemicals. In general, in situ bioremediation and/or phytoremediation are suitable methods for reclaiming heavy metal contaminated sites. However, the numerous classes and types of these chemicals apart from the soil structure complicate the removal of many toxic metals from the environment. As an alternative, an ecological approach has been developed involving the use of plants to clean up or remediate soils contaminated with toxic metals. A group of plants termed “hyperaccumulators” are considered to be the best candidates for taking up toxic metals, transporting them, and accumulating them. Biotechnological applications, especially transgenic plants, probably hold the most promise for augmenting agricultural production. However, the application of these technologies to the agriculture of tropical regions containing the largest areas of low productivity, where they are most needed, remains a major challenge. Some of the most important issues that need to be considered to ensure that plant biotechnology is effectively transferred to the developing world are discussed.


Heavy Metal Tropical Rainforest Brassica Juncea Aluminum Toxicity Chromated Copper Arsenate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are thankful to their B.Tech (Biotech) 2008 students, Vijyendra, Gaurav, Preetika, Raman, Prachy, Aparna, Anant, and Harsh, for providing updates on knowledge and research in this field. We are also thankful to Major General K.K. Ohri (AVSM, Retd.), Mr. Aseem Chauhan (C-VI), and Prof. Suprabhat Ray, Director, Research, for encouraging us and for their discussions on this subject.


  1. Aickin RM, Dean ACR, Cheetham AK, Skarnulis AJ (1979) Electron microscope studies on the uptake of lead by a Citrobacter sp. Microbios Lett 9:7–15Google Scholar
  2. Hartemink AE (2004) Soils of the tropics. Geoderma 123:373–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alkorta I (2004) Plants against the global epidemic of arsenic poisoning. Environ Int 30(7):949–951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alloway BJ, Jackson AP (1991) The behavior of heavy metals in sewage sludge amended soils. Sci Total Environ 100:151–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asatiani NV (2004) Effect of chromium (VI) action on Arthrobacter oxydans. Curr Microbiol 49:321–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bååth EÅ, Frostegård D-R, Campbell CD (1998) Effect of metal-rich sludge amendments on the soil microbial community. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:238–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker AJM, Brooks RR (1989) Terrestrial higher plants which hyperaccumulate metalic elements. a review of their distribution, ecology and phytochemistry. Biorecovery 1:81–126Google Scholar
  8. Baker AJM, McGrath SP, Sidoli CMD, Reeves RD (1994) The possibility of in situ heavy metal decontamination of polluted soils using crops of metal-accumulating plants. Resour Conserv Recycl 11:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bañuelos GS (2000) Phytoextraction of selenium from soils irrigated with selenium-laden effluent. Plant Soil 224:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barker AV, Bryson GM (2002) Bioremediation of Heavy Metals and Organic Toxicants by Composting. Mini-Review Sci World J 2:407–420Google Scholar
  11. Beti WR, Cunningham SD (1993) Remediation of contaminated soils with green plants: an overview. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 29:207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Black H (1995) Absorbing possibilities: phytoremediation. Environ Health Respect 103:1106–1108Google Scholar
  13. Blaylock MJ, Salt DE, Dushenkov S, Zakharova O, Gussman C (1997) Enhanced accumulation of Pb in Indian mustard by soil-applied chelating agents. Environ Sci Technol 31:860–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blaylock MJ, Huang JW (2000) Phytoextraction of metals. In: Raskin I, Ensley BD (eds) Phytoremediation of toxic metals: using plants to clean up the environment. New York, Wiley, pp 53–70Google Scholar
  15. Böckl M, Blay K, Fischer K, Mommertz S, Filser J (1998) Colonisation of a copper- decontaminated soil by micro- and mesofauna. Appl Soil Ecol 9(1–3):489–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bogomolov DM, Chen SK, Parmelee RW, Subler S, Edwards CA (1996) An ecosystem approach to soil toxicity testing: a study of copper contamination in laboratory soil microcosms. Appl Soil Ecol 4:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brenes E, Pearson RW (1973) Soil Sci 116:295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bridgwater AV, Meier D, Radlein D (1999) An overview of fast pyrolysis of biomass. Org Geochem 30:1479–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brim H (2000) Engineering Deinococcus radiodurans for metal remediation in radioactive mixed waste environments. Nat Biotechnol Jan 18:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brooks RR (1994) Plants and chemical elements: biochemistry, uptake, tolerance and toxicity. In: Gargo ME (ed) VCH Verlagsgesellsschaft. Weinheim, Germany, pp 88–105Google Scholar
  21. Brooks RR, Chambers MF, Nicks LJ, Robinson BH (1998) Phytomining. Trends Plant Sci 1:359–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown SL, Chaney RL, Angle JS, Baker AJM (1995) Zinc and cadmium uptake by hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens grown in nutrient solution. Soil Sci Soc Am J 59:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bubb JM, Lester JN (1991) The impact of heavy metals on lowland rivers and the implications for man and the environment. Sci Total Env 100:207–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Burns RG, Rogers S, McGhee I (1996) Remediation of inorganics and organics in industrial and urban contaminated soils. In: Naidu R, Kookana RS, Oliver DP, Rogers S, McLaughlin MJ (eds) Contaminants and the soil environment in the Australia pacific region. Kluwer, London, pp 361–410Google Scholar
  25. Buringh P, Van Haenst HD, Staring Y (1975) J Exp Bot 24:1189–1195Google Scholar
  26. Cataldo DA, Wildung RE (1978) Soil and plant factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals by plants. Environ Health perspect 27:149–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chaney RL, Li YM, Angle JS, Baker AJM, Reeves RD, Brown SL, Homer FA, Malik M, Chin M (2000) Improving metal hyperaccumulation wild plants to develop commercial phytoextraction systems: approaches and progress. In: Terry N, Banelos G (eds) Phytoremediation of contaminated soil and water. Boca Raton, FL, Lewis Publishers, pp 129–158Google Scholar
  28. Chaudhry TM, Hayes WJ, Khan AG, Khoo CS (1998) Phytoremediation – focusing on accumulator plants that remediate metalcontaminated soils. Australian J Ecotoxicol 4:37–51Google Scholar
  29. Cobbett CS (2000) Phytochelatins and their role in heavy metal detoxification. Plant Physiol 123:825–832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crowley DE, Wang YC, Reid CPP, Szansiszlo PJ (1991) Mechanism of iron acquisition from siderophores by microorganisms and plants. Plant and Soil 130:179–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cunningham S (1995) In Proceedings/Abstracts of the Fourteenth Annual Symposium, Current Topics in Plant Biochemistry – Physiology and Molecular Biology Columbia, April 19–22:47–48Google Scholar
  32. Cunningham SD, Ow DW (1996) Promises and prospects of phytoremediation. Plant Physiol 110:715–719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cunningham SD, Shann JR, Crowley D, Anderson TA (1997) Phytoremediation of contaminated water and soil. In: Krueger EL, Anderson TA, Coats JP (eds) Phytoremediation of soil and water contaminants. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  34. Cunningham CJ, Philip JC (2000) Comparison of bioaugmentation and biostimulation in ex situ treatment of diesel contaminated soil. Land Contamination and Reclamation, University of Edinburgh, Scotland. de Maíz y TrigoGoogle Scholar
  35. Dierberg FE, DeBusk TA, Goule NA (1987) In Reddy KB and Smith WH (Ed.) Aquatic Plants for Water Treatment and Resource Recovery. Florida, Magnolia Publishing Inc, pp. 497–504Google Scholar
  36. Dumestre A, Sauve S, McBride M, Baveye P, Berthelin J (1999) Copper speciation and microbial activity in long-term contaminated soils. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 36:124–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dunal R (1988) Management and fertilization of upland crops in the tropics. In Wang Y (Ed.). Nanjing, China: Nanjing Institute of Soil Science:1–5Google Scholar
  38. Dushenkov D (2003) Trends in phytoremediation of radionuclides. Plant and Soil 249:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dushenkov S, Vasudev D, Kapolnik Y, Gleba D, Fleisher D, Ting KC, Ensley B (1997) Environ Sci Technol 31:3468–3476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Environmental Research, Office of Science, US Department of Energy. What is bioremediation 2003. 9Google Scholar
  41. Evanko Cynthia R, Dzombak DA(1997) Remediation of Metals-Contaminated Soil and Groundwater, GWRTAC, October.
  42. Farago ME, Parsons PJ (1994) The effects of various platinum metal species on the water plant Eichhornia crassipes (MART). Chem Spec Bioavail 6:1–12Google Scholar
  43. Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) (2000) In-situ biological treatment.remediation technologies screening matrix and reference guide, version 4.0. 2004/04/07
  44. Ford T, Mitchell (1992) Microbial transport of toxic metals. In Environmental Microbiology, Wiley-Liss, pp. 83–101Google Scholar
  45. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1991) World Soil Resources Report 66 Freedman B, Hutchinson TC (1980) Can J Bot 58:1722–1736Google Scholar
  46. Gadd GM (1990) Metal tolerance. In: Clive E (ed) Microbiology of extreme environments. Open Univ Press, London, pp 178–207Google Scholar
  47. Garbisu C, Alkorta I (2001) Phytoextraction: a cost-effective plant-based technology for the removal of metals from the environment. Bioresour Technol 77:229–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gareia M (1984) J Soil Sci 138:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gaymard F (1998) Identification and disruption of a plant shaker-like outward channel involved in K + release into the xylem sap. Cell 94:647–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gerard E, Echevarria G, Sterckeman T, Morel JLP (2000) Availability of Cd to three plant species varying in accumulation pattern. J Environ Qual 29:1117–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ghosh M, Singh SP (2005) A comparative study of cadmium phytoextraction by accumulator and weed species. Environ Pollut 133:365–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gleba D, Borisjuk NV, Borisjuk LG, Kneer R, Poulev A, Skarzhinskaya M, Dushenkov S, Logendra S, Gleba YY, Raskin I (1999) Use of Plant root for phytoremediation and molecular farming. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:5973–5977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Goyer RA (1996) Toxic effects of metals. In: Klaassen CD (ed) Casarett & Doull’s toxicology: basic science of poisons. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Grill E, Winnacker L, Zenk HM (1987) Phytochelatins, the heavy-metal- binding peptides of plants, are synthesized from Glutathione by a specific – glutamylcysteine dipeptidyl transpeptidase (Phytochelatin Synthase). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:6838–6842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Haug A (1984) Molecular aspects of aluminium toxicity. CRC Crit Rev Plant Sci 1:345–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hawkes SJ (1997) What Is a Heavy Metal? J Chem Edu 74:1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Helsen L, VD BE, Broeck KVD, Vandecasteele C (1997) Low temperature pyrolysis of CCA-treated wood waste: chemical determination and statistical analysis of metal input and output; mass balances. Waste Manag 17:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Henry JR (2000) In an overview of phytoremediation of lead and mercury. NNEMS Report. Washington DC, pp. 3–9Google Scholar
  59. Hetland MD, Gallagher JR, Daly DJ, Hassett DJ, Heebink LV (2001) Processing of plants used to phytoremediate lead-contaminated sites. In: Leeson A, Foote EA, Banks MK, Magar VS (eds) Phytoremediation, wetlands, and sediments, the sixth International in situ and on-site bioremediation symposium, San Diego, California, 4–7 June. Battelle Press, Columbus, Richland, pp 129–136Google Scholar
  60. Hinchman R, Negri C (1997) Hytoremediation becoming quite “Poplar”- Haz. Waste Consult 15(3):1–16Google Scholar
  61. Hirsch RE (1998) A role for the AKT1 potassium channel in plant nutrition. Science 280:918–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Huang JW, Chen J, Berti WR, Cunningham SD (1997) Phytoremediation of lead contaminated soils-Role of synthetic chelates in lead phytoextraction. Environ Sci Technol 31:800–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Iyer PVR, Rao TR, Grover PD (2002) Biomass thermochemical characterization, 3rd edn. p. 38.Google Scholar
  64. Karley AJ, Leigh RA, Sanders D (2000) Where do all the ions go? the cellular basis of differential ion accumulation in leaf cells. Trends Plant Sci 5:465–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kelly JJ, Tate RL (1998) Effects of heavy metal contamination and remediation on soil microbial communities in the vicinity of a zinc smelter. J Environ Qual 27:609–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kelly JJ, Häggblom MM, Tate RL (2003) Effects of heavy metal contamination and remediation on soil microbial communities in the vicinity of a zinc smelter as indicated by analysis of microbial community phospholipid fatty acid profiles. Biol Fertil Soils 38:65–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kennedy IR (1986) The impact on the environment of nitrogen and sulfur cycling. In Kennedy IR (Ed.). Cambridge, UK, Cambridge Univ Press, pp. 34–92Google Scholar
  68. Kennish MJ (1992) Ecology of estuaries: anthropogenic effects. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p 494Google Scholar
  69. Kochian LV (1995) Cellular mechanisms of aluminum toxicity and resistance in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 46:237–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kinnersely AM (1993) Plant Growth Regulation 12:207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kochian L (1996) In International Phytoremediation Conference, Southborough, MA. May 8–10Google Scholar
  72. Koppolua L, Agblover FA, Clements LD (2003) Pyrolysis as a technique for separating heavy metals from hyperaccumulators. Part II Lab-scale pyrolysis of synthetic hyperaccumulator biomass. Biomass Bioenergy 25:651–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kumar PBAN, Dushenkov V, Motto H, Raskin I (1995) Phytoextraction: the use of plants to remove heavy metals from soils. Environ Sci Technol 29:1232–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lal R, Sanchez PA (Eds.) (1992) Myths and Science of Soils of the Tropics. SSSA Special Publication, vol 29. SSSA-ASA, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  75. Lambert M, Pierzynski G, Erickson L, Schnoor J (1997) Remediation of Lead, Zinc, and Cadmium-contaminated soils. In: Hester R, Harrison R (eds) Contaminated land and its reclamation. Royal Soc Chem, Cambridge, pp 91–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liao JP, Lin XG, Cao ZH, Shi YQ, Wong MH (2003) Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizae and heavy metals under sand culture experiment. Chemosphere 50:847–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lopes AS, Cox FR (1977) Soil Sci Am J 41:743–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lovley DR (2004) Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction. Adv Microb Physiol 49:219–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ma LQ, Komar KM, Tu C, Zhang W, Cai Y, Kenelley ED (2001) Bioremediation: a fern that hyperaccumulates arsenic. Nature 409:579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Macaskie LE, Dean ACR, Cheetam AK (1987) Cadmium accumulation by a Citrobacter sp. The chemical nature of the accumulated metal precipitate and its location on the bacterial cells. J Gen Microbiol 133:539–547Google Scholar
  81. Belén Hinojosa M, Carreira JA, García-Ruíz R, Dick RP (2005) Microbial response to heavy metal polluted soils-community analysis from phospholipid-linked fatty acids and ester-linked fatty acids extracts. J Environ Qual 34:1789–1800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mench MJ, Didier VL, Loffler M, Gomez A, Masson P (1994) J Environ Qual 23:785–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mohapatra PK (2006) Text book of environmental biotechnology. IK International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-88237-54-X, pp. 357–394Google Scholar
  84. McNeil KR, Waring S (1992) Contaminated land treatment technologies. In: Rees JF (ed) Society of chemical industry. Elsevier, London, pp 143–159Google Scholar
  85. Mueller B, Rock S, Gowswami Dib, Ensley D (1999) Phytoremediation decision tree- prepared by – Interstate technology and regulatory cooperation work Group, pp. 1–36Google Scholar
  86. Musgrove S (1991) In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Land Reclamation, University of Wales. Elsevier Science Publication, Essex, UKGoogle Scholar
  87. National Research Council (2003) Rittmann Bruce, Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa Bedient, B Philip, Brown A Richard, Chapelle H Francis. In situ bioremediation. When does it work? p. 13Google Scholar
  88. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) (2003) Program, office of Biological and Environmental Research, Office of Science, US Department of Energy. What is bioremediation p. 9Google Scholar
  89. Nicks L, Chambers MF (1994) Nickel farm. Discover September, p. 19Google Scholar
  90. North NN (2004) Change in bacterial community structure during in situ biostimulation of subsurface sediment contaminated with uranium and nitrate. Appl Environ Microbiol (Aug) 70:4911–4920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Obed S, Kenneth A (2002) Soil bioremediation: In-situ vs. Ex-situ (Costs, benefits, and effects). WSP and Göteborg Energi 2002Google Scholar
  92. Ow DW (1996) Heavy metal tolerance genes-prospective tools for bioremediation. Res Conserv Recycling 18:135–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pandey S, Ceballos H, Granados G, Knapp E (1994) Stress tolerance breeding: maize that resist insects, drought, low nitrogen and acidic soils. In: Edmeades GE, Deutsch JA (eds) Maize program, a special report. Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, Mexico, DFGoogle Scholar
  94. Pan WP, Richards GN (1990) Volatile products of oxidative pyrolysis of wood: influence of metal ions. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 17:261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pennanen T, Frostegård A, Fritze H, Bååth E (1996) Phospholipid fatty acid composition and heavy metal tolerance of soil microbial communities along two heavy metal-polluted gradients in coniferous forest. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:420–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Pinkart HC, Ringelberg DB, Piceno YM, Macnaughton SJ, White DC (2002) Biochemical approaches to biomass measurements and community structure analysis. In CJ Hurst RL Crawford GR, pp. 101–113Google Scholar
  97. Preston GM (2004) Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:907–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Qian JH, Zayed A, Zhu YL, Terry NP (1999) Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species. J Environ Qual 28:1448–1455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rajapaksha RMCP, Tobor-Kaplon MA, Bååth E (2004) Metal toxicity affects fungal and bacterial activities in soil differently. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:2966–2973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rajendran P (2003) Microbes in heavy metal remediation. Indian J Exp Biol 41(9):935–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rashmi K (2004) Bioremediation of 60Co from simulated spent decontamination solutions. Sci Total Environ 328:1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Raskin I, Ensley BD (2000) Phytoremediation of toxic metals: using plants to clean up the environment. Wiley, New York, pp 53–70Google Scholar
  103. Raskin I, Kumar PBAN, Dushenkov S, Salt D (1994) Bioconcentration of heavy metals by plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 5:285–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Raskin I, Smith RD, Salt DE (1997) Phytoremediation of metals: using plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Curr Opin Biotechnol 8:221–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rauser WE (1999) Structure and function of metal chelators produced by plants: the case for organic acids, amino acids, phytin, and metallothioneins. Cell Biochem Biophys 31:19–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Reed DT (1999) Radiotoxicity of plutonium in NTA-degrading Chelatobacter heintzii cell suspensions. Biodegradation 10:251–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Reed DT, Tasker IR, Cunnane JC, Vandegrift GF (1992) Environmental remediation removing organic and metal ion pollutants. In Vandgrift GF Reed DT and Tasker IR (Eds.) American Chemical Society, Washington DC, pp. 1–19Google Scholar
  108. Reeves RD (2003) Tropical hyperaccumulators of metals and their potential for phytoextraction. Plant Soil 249:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Richards GN, Zheng G (1991) Influence of metal ions and of salts on products from pyrolysis of wood: applications to thermochemical processing of newsprint and biomass. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 21:133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rulkens WH, Tichy R, Grotenhuis JTC (1998) Remediation of polluted soil and sediment: perspectives and failures. Water Sci Technol 37:27–35Google Scholar
  111. Saxena P, Bhattacharyya AK, Mathur N (2006) Nickel tolerance and accumulation by filamentous fungi from sludge of metal finishing industry BioMicroWorld-2005 special issue”, edited by Antonio Méndez-Vilas. Geomicrobiol J (Special Issue) 23:333–340Google Scholar
  112. Saxena P, Bhattacharyya AK (2006) Soil amendment with sludge generated from metal finishing industries and its impact on metabolic quotient. Modern multidisciplinary applied microbiology. Exploiting microbes and their interactions ISBN 3-527-31611-6
  113. Saxena P, Bhattacharyya AK (2005) environment risk assessment of hazardous waste generating smallscale metal finishing industries, India: a case Study. 20th International Conference on Solid Waste Tech and Management, Philadelphia, PA, USA. April 3–6, 2005Google Scholar
  114. Saxena P, Bhattacharyya AK (2005) Inventorisation of environmental risk associated with hazardous waste generated in small scale industrial area of Delhi, India. Headwater control VI: hydrology, ecology and water resources in headwaters. Bergen, Norway, 20–23 JUNE 2005Google Scholar
  115. Sadowsky MJ (1999) In Phytoremediation: Past promises and future practices – Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology. Halifax, Canada:1–7Google Scholar
  116. Salt DE, Smith RD, Raskin I (1998) Phytoremediation. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:643–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Salt DE, Blaylock M, Nanda Kumar PBA, Dushenkov V, Ensley BD, Raskin I (1995) Phytoremediation: a novel strategy for the removal of toxic metals from the environment using plants. Biotechnology 13:468–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Salt DE, Pickering IJ, Prince RC, Gleba D, Dushenkov S, Smith RD, Raskin I (1997) Metal accumulation by aquacultured seedlings of Indian mustard. Environ Sci Technol 31:1636–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sharma PD (2007) Ecol Environ. Rastogi Publication, New Delhi. ISBN ISBN 978-81-7133-905-1Google Scholar
  120. Shi W, Becker J, Bischoff M, Turco RF, Konopka AE (2002) Association of microbial community composition and activity with lead, chromium, and hydrocarbon contamination. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3859–3866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sigg L (1987) Surface chemical aspects of the distribution and fate of metal ions in Lakes. In: Stumn W (ed) Aquatic surface chemistry: chemical processes at the particle-water interface. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  122. Simeonova DD (2004) Microplate screening assay for the detection of arsenite-oxidizing and arsenate-reducing bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett 237:249–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Singh SP, Ghosh M (2005) A review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and utilization of its byproducts. Appl Ecol Environ Res 3:1–18Google Scholar
  124. Singh SP, Ghosh M (2003) A Comparative study on effect of cadmium, chromium and lead on seed germination of weed and accumulator plant species. Indian J Environ Protec 23:513–518Google Scholar
  125. Smith B (1993) Remediation update funding the remedy. Waste Manage Environ 4:24–30Google Scholar
  126. Subhas KS, Irvine RL (1998) Bioremediation: fundamentals and applications. Technomic Publishing, Volume I, pp. 283–290Google Scholar
  127. Sung K (2004) Plant aided bioremediation in the vadose zone: model development and applications. J Contam Hydrol 73:65–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. USEPA (2000) Introduction to phytoremediation, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, EPA/600/R-99/107, February 2000Google Scholar
  129. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2001) Remediation case studies. Federal Remediation Technology Roundtable. Report 542-F-01-032Google Scholar
  130. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2003) Underground storage tanks. 2004/01/16
  131. USEPA (2004) Cleaning up the Nation’s waste sites: markets and technology trends. EPA 542-R-04-015Google Scholar
  132. US President’s Advisory Committee Report (1967), pp. 20–45Google Scholar
  133. Vala AK (2004) Tolerance and accumulation of hexavalent chromium by two seaweed associated Aspergilli. Mar Pollut Bull 48:983–985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Van Zwieten L, Rust J, Kingston T, Merrington G, Morris S (2004) Influence of copper fungicide residues on occurrence of earthworms in avocado orchard soils. Sci Total Environ 329:29–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Von Uexküll HR, Mutert E (1995) Plant Soil 171:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Van Schoonhoven A, Voysest O (1980) Bean Production Problems in the Tropic In Schwartz M and Pastor-Corrales J (Eds.) (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia), 2nd Edn. pp. 33–58Google Scholar
  137. Vassil AD, Kapulnik Y, Raskin I, Salt DE (1998) The role of EDTA in lead transport and accumulation by Indian mustard. Plant Physiol 117:447–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wood P (1997) Remediation methods for contaminated sites. In: Hester R, Harrison R (eds) Contaminated land and its reclamation. Royal Soc Chem, Cambridge, pp 47–71Google Scholar
  139. Williams GM (1988) Land Disposal of Hazardous waste. Engineering and Environmental issues. pp. 37–48Google Scholar
  140. World’s largest Map store, World Vegetation (Terrestrial Biomes) Map by The
  141. Zhu YL, Pilon-Smits EAH, Tarun AS, Weber SU, Jouanin L, Terry N (1999) Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in Indian mustard is enhanced by overexpressing glutamylcysteine synthetase. Plant Physiol 121:1169–1177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amity Institute of BiotechnologyAmity University Uttar Pradesh, Amity Lucknow CampusLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations