Monotonicity in Service Orchestrations

  • Anne Bouillard
  • Sidney Rosario
  • Albert Benveniste
  • Stefan Haar
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5606)


Web Service orchestrations are compositions of different Web Services to form a new service. The services called during the orchestration guarantee a given Quality of Service (QoS) to the orchestrator, usually in the form of contracts. These contracts can then be used by the orchestrator to deduce the contract it can offer to its own clients, by performing contract composition. An implicit monotonicity assumption in contract based QoS management is: “the better the component services perform, the better the orchestration’s performance will be”.

In some orchestrations, however, monotonicity can be violated, i.e., the performance of the orchestration improves when the performance of a component service degrades. This is highly undesirable since it can render the process of contract composition inconsistent.

In this paper we formally define monotonicity for orchestrations modelled by Colored Occurrence Nets (CO-nets) and we characterize the classes of monotonic orchestrations. Contracts can be formulated as hard, possibly nondeterministic, guarantees, or alternatively as probabilistic guarantees. Our work covers both cases. We show that few orchestrations are indeed monotonic, mostly because of complex interactions between control, data, and timing. We also provide user guidelines to get rid of non-monotonicity when designing orchestrations.


Service Level Agreement Business Process Execution Language Service Orchestration Rental Service Travel Planner 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Bouillard
    • 1
  • Sidney Rosario
    • 2
  • Albert Benveniste
    • 2
  • Stefan Haar
    • 3
  1. 1.ENS Cachan, IRISAUniversité Européenne de BretagneBruzFrance
  2. 2.IRISA/INRIARennesFrance
  3. 3.INRIA Saclay, ENS CachanFrance

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