Advertisement

Monotonicity in Service Orchestrations

  • Anne Bouillard
  • Sidney Rosario
  • Albert Benveniste
  • Stefan Haar
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5606)

Abstract

Web Service orchestrations are compositions of different Web Services to form a new service. The services called during the orchestration guarantee a given Quality of Service (QoS) to the orchestrator, usually in the form of contracts. These contracts can then be used by the orchestrator to deduce the contract it can offer to its own clients, by performing contract composition. An implicit monotonicity assumption in contract based QoS management is: “the better the component services perform, the better the orchestration’s performance will be”.

In some orchestrations, however, monotonicity can be violated, i.e., the performance of the orchestration improves when the performance of a component service degrades. This is highly undesirable since it can render the process of contract composition inconsistent.

In this paper we formally define monotonicity for orchestrations modelled by Colored Occurrence Nets (CO-nets) and we characterize the classes of monotonic orchestrations. Contracts can be formulated as hard, possibly nondeterministic, guarantees, or alternatively as probabilistic guarantees. Our work covers both cases. We show that few orchestrations are indeed monotonic, mostly because of complex interactions between control, data, and timing. We also provide user guidelines to get rid of non-monotonicity when designing orchestrations.

Keywords

Service Level Agreement Business Process Execution Language Service Orchestration Rental Service Travel Planner 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anderson, G.: Nonparametric tests of stochastic dominance in income distributions. Econometrica 64(5), 1183–1193 (1996)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arias-Fisteus, J., Fernández, L.S., Kloos, C.D.: Applying model checking to BPEL4WS business collaborations. In: SAC, pp. 826–830 (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    OASIS WSBPEL Technical Committee. Web Services Business Process Execution Language Version 2.0. OASIS Standard (April 2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kartson, D., Balbo, G., Donatelli, S., Franceschinis, G., Conte, G.: Modelling with Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY (1994)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Keller, A., Ludwig, H.: The wsla framework: Specifying and monitoring service level agreements for web services. J. Network Syst. Manage. 11(1) (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kitchin, D., Cook, W.R., Misra, J.: A language for task orchestration and its semantic properties. In: Baier, C., Hermanns, H. (eds.) CONCUR 2006. LNCS, vol. 4137, pp. 477–491. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Misra, J., Cook, W.R.: Computation orchestration: A basis for wide-area computing. Journal of Software and Systems Modeling (May 2006), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10270-006-0012-1
  8. 8.
    Murata, T.: Petri nets: Properties, analysis and applications. Proceedings of the IEEE 77(4), 541–580 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ouyang, C., Verbeek, E., van der Aalst, W.M.P., Breutel, S., Dumas, M., ter Hofstede, A.H.M.: Formal semantics and analysis of control flow in ws-bpel. Sci. Comput. Program. 67(2-3), 162–198 (2007)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rosario, S., Benveniste, A., Haar, S., Jard, C.: Probabilistic QoS and soft contracts for transaction based web services. In: ICWS, pp. 126–133 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rosario, S., Benveniste, A., Haar, S., Jard, C.: Probabilistic QoS and Soft Contracts for Transaction based Web Services. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing 1(4), 187–200 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rosario, S., Kitchin, D., Benveniste, A., Cook, W.R., Haar, S., Jard, C.: Event structure semantics of orc. In: Dumas, M., Heckel, R. (eds.) WS-FM 2007. LNCS, vol. 4937, pp. 154–168. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P.: Verification of workflow nets. In: Azéma, P., Balbo, G. (eds.) ICATPN 1997. LNCS, vol. 1248, pp. 407–426. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zeng, L., Benatallah, B., Ngu, A.H.H., Dumas, M., Kalagnanam, J., Chang, H.: QoS-Aware Middleware for Web Services Composition. IEEE Trans. Software Eng. 30(5), 311–327 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Bouillard
    • 1
  • Sidney Rosario
    • 2
  • Albert Benveniste
    • 2
  • Stefan Haar
    • 3
  1. 1.ENS Cachan, IRISAUniversité Européenne de BretagneBruzFrance
  2. 2.IRISA/INRIARennesFrance
  3. 3.INRIA Saclay, ENS CachanFrance

Personalised recommendations