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Sex Steroid Receptors in Immune Cells

Chapter

Abstract

Lymphocytes and myeloid cells express estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors, and studies show that sex steroid hormones directly modulate their activation, lifespan, and functional response during innate and adaptive immunity. Hematopoietic progenitors also express estrogen and androgen receptors, and profound effects of sex hormones on development of lymphoid and myeloid cells have been reported. The sex steroid receptors act as nuclear transcription factors, via multiple ligand-dependent or ligand-independent mechanisms. Sex steroid receptors also mediate rapid signaling events that synergize with membrane receptor signaling. The basis of sex-based differences in immunity will be clarified by determination of the potentially diverse molecular mechanisms by which sex steroid receptor signaling regulates immune cell development and function.

Keywords

Estrogen Receptor Androgen Receptor Progesterone Receptor Hematopoietic Progenitor Estrogen Receptor Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr. John Knight for expert editorial assistance.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Arthritis and Immunology Research ProgramOklahoma Medical Research FoundationOklahoma CityUSA

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