Second-Order Neighborhood Analysis of Mapped Point Patterns

  • Arthur Getis
  • Janet Franklin
Part of the Advances in Spatial Science book series (ADVSPATIAL)


A technique based on second-order methods, called second-order neighborhood analysis, is used to quantify clustering at various spatial scales. The theoretical model represents the degree of clustering in a Poisson process from the perspective of each individual point. The method is applied to point location data for a sample of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees, and shows that heterogeneity within the forest is clearly a function of the scale of analysis.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographySan Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, and School of Life SciencesArizona State UniversityArizonaUSA

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