Spatial Statistical Analysis and Geographic Information Systems

  • Luc AnselinEmail author
  • Arthur Getis
Part of the Advances in Spatial Science book series (ADVSPATIAL)


In this paper, we discuss a number of general issues that pertain to the interface between GIS and spatial analysis. In particular, we focus on the various paradigms for spatial data analysis that follow from the existence of this interface. We outline a series of questions that need to be confronted in the analysis of spatial data, and the extent to which a GIS can facilitate their resolution. We also review a number of exploratory and confirmatory techniques that we feel should form the core of a spatial analysis module for a GIS.


Geographic Information System Spatial Analysis Spatial Data Spatial Dependence Spatial Unit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abler RF (1987) The National Science Foundation National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis. Int J Geogr Inf Syst 1:303–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahuja N, Schachter BJ (1983) Pattern models. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Anselin L (1988) Spatial econometrics: methods and models. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  4. Anselin L (1990) What is special about spatial data? Alternative perspectives on spatial data analysis. In: Griffith DA (ed) Spatial statistics, past, present and future. Institute of Mathematical Geography, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 63–77Google Scholar
  5. Anselin L (1991) SpaceStat: a program for the analysis of spatial data. Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara, CAGoogle Scholar
  6. Anselin L, Griffith DA (1988) Do spatial effects really matter in regression analysis? Pap Reg Sci 65:11–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arbia G (1989) Spatial data configuration in statistical analysis of regional economic and related problems. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailey TC (1990) GIS and simple systems for visual, interactive, spatial analysis. Cartogr J 27: 79–84Google Scholar
  9. Becker RA, Chambers JM, Wilks AR (1988) The new S language: a programming environment for data analysis and graphics. Wadsworth, Pacific Grove, CAGoogle Scholar
  10. Berry BJL, Marble DF (1968) Spatial analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonham-Carter G, Agterberg F, Wright D (1988) Integration of geological datasets for gold exploration in Nova Scotia. J Photogramm Remote Sens 54:1585–1592Google Scholar
  12. Boots BN (1985) Voronoi (Thiessen) polygons, Catmog no 45. Geo Books, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  13. Boots BN, Getis A (1987) Point pattern analysis. Sage, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  14. Burrough PA (1990) Methods of spatial analysis in GIS. Int J Geogr Inf Syst 4:221–223Google Scholar
  15. Cleveland WS, McGilI ME (1988) Dynamic graphics for statistics. Wadsworth, Pacific Grove, CAGoogle Scholar
  16. Cliff AD, Ord JK (1981) Spatial processes: models and applications. Pion, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Couclelis H (1991) Requirements for planning-relevant GIS: a spatial perspective. Pap Reg Sci 70:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cressie N (1985) Fitting variogram models by weighted least squares. Math Geol 17:563–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cressie N (1986) Kriging nonstationary data. J Am Stat Assoc 81:625–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Csillag F (1991) Merging GIS and spatial statistics. In: Workbook for IGU-GIS conference on multiple representations and multiple uses. Masaryk University, Brno, CzechoslovakiaGoogle Scholar
  21. Davis JC (1986) Statistics and data analysis in geology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Ding Y, Fotheringham AS (1991) The integration of spatial analysis and GIS. National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Buffalo, NYGoogle Scholar
  23. Farley JA, Limp WF, Lockhart J (1990) The archaeologist’s workbench: integrating GIS, remote sensing, EDA and database management. In: Allen KMS, Green FSW, Zubrow EBW (eds) Interpreting space: GIS and archaeology. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 141–164Google Scholar
  24. Flowerdew R, Green M, Kehris E (1991) Using areal interpolation methods in geographic information systems. Pap Reg Sci 70:303–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Foster SA, Gorr WL (1986) An adaptive filter for estimating spatially-varying parameters: application to modeling police hours spent in response to calls for service. Manage Sci 32:878–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Getis A, Ord JK (1992) The analysis of spatial association by use of distance statistics. Geogr Anal 24:189–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goodchild MF (1987) A spatial analytical perspective on geographical information systems. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 1:327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goodchild MF (1992) Geographical data modeling. Comput Geosci 18:401–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goodchild MF, Brusegard D (1989) Spatial analysis using GIS: seminar workbook. National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Santa Barbara, CAGoogle Scholar
  30. Goodchild MF, Gopal S (1989) The accuracy of spatial databases. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  31. Goodchild MF, Haining RP, Wise S (1992) Integrating GIS and spatial data analysis: problems and possibilities. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 6:407–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gould P (1981) Letting the data speak for themselves. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 71:166–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Griffith DA (1988a) Advanced spatial statistics: special topics in the exploration of quantitative spatial data series, vol 12. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  34. Griffith DA, Bennett RJ, Haining RP (1989) Statistical analysis of spatial data in the presence of missing observations: a methodological guide and an application to urban census data. Environ Plan A 21:1511–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Griffith DA, Lewis R, Li B, Vasiliev I, McKnight S, Yang X (1990) Developing Minitab software for spatial statistical analysis: a tool for education and research. Oper Geogr 8:28–33Google Scholar
  36. Haining RP (1990b) The use of added variable plots in regression modelling with spatial data. Prof Geogr 42:336–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Haining RP (1991) Bivariate correlation with spatial data. Geogr Anal 23:210–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Haslett J, Wills G, Unwin A (1990) SPIDER – an interactive statistical tool for the analysis of spatially distributed data. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 4:285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hubert L, Golledge RG, Costanzo C (1981) Generalized procedures for evaluating spatial autocorrelation. Geogr Anal 13:224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. MacDougall EB (1991) A prototype interface for exploratory analysis of geographic data. Working paper, Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning, University of MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  41. Mosteller F, Tukey JW (1977) Data analysis and regression: a second course in statistics. Addison-Wesley series in behavioral science. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MAGoogle Scholar
  42. Nijkamp P (1988) The use of information systems for regional planning. R Econ Reg Urb 15: 759–780Google Scholar
  43. Nijkamp P, Rietveld P (1984) Information systems for integrated regional planning, vol. 149. North-Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  44. Oliver MA, Webster R (1990) Kriging: a method of interpolation for geographical information systems. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 4:313–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Openshaw S (1990) Spatial analysis and geographical information systems: a review of progress and possibilities. In: Scholten HJ, Stillwell JCH (eds) Geographical information systems for urban and regional planning, vol 17. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  46. Openshaw S, Taylor P (1979) A million or so correlation coefficients: three experiments on the modifiable areal unit problem. In: Wrigley N, Bennett RJ (eds) Statistical applications in the spatial sciences. Pion, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. Openshaw S, Charlton ME, Wymer C, Craft A (1987) A Mark I geographical analysis machine for the automated analysis of point data sets. Int J Geogr Inf Syst 1:335–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Peuquet D (1984) A conceptual framework and comparison of spatial data models. Cartographica 21:66–113Google Scholar
  49. Pielou E (1977) Mathematical ecology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Rayner JN (1971) An introduction to spectral analysis. Pion, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. Ripley BD (1981) Spatial statistics. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stringer P, Haslett J (1991) The spatial distribution of ill-health and material deprivation: an exploratory analysis using interactive graphics. Working paper, Northern Ireland Regional Research Laboratory, DublinGoogle Scholar
  53. Tobler WR (1979a) Cellular geography. In: Gale S, Olsson G (eds) Philosophy in geography. D Reidel, Dordrecht, pp 519–536Google Scholar
  54. Tukey JW (1977) Exploratory data analysis. Addison-Wesley series in behavioral science. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MAGoogle Scholar
  55. Walker PA, Moore DM (1988) SIMPLE: an inductive modelling and mapping tool for spatially-oriented data. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 2:347–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geographical SciencesArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  2. 2.Department of GeographySan Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations