ArchiMate is an approach to modeling the architecture of enterprises. In the corresponding architecture framework, three enterprise layers are distinguished: business, application and technology. Although ArchiMate is broadly applied in practice, its semantics appears to be undefined. DEMO is a methodology for enterprise engineering that is facing a rapidly growing acceptance. It is firmly rooted in a sound and appropriate theoretical basis. DEMO also distinguishes between three enterprise layers: ontological, infological and datalogical. This paper reports on a theoretical and practical comparative evaluation of ArchiMate and DEMO. Only the business layer of ArchiMate and the ontological layer of DEMO are considered. Three conclusions are drawn. First, the two approaches are hardly comparable since ArchiMate belongs to the second and DEMO to the third wave of approaches. Second, the business layer of ArchiMate corresponds to all three layers of DEMO, without a possibility to distinguish between them. Third, ArchiMate could benefit from adopting DEMO as its front-end approach, thereby enforcing the rigorously defined semantics of DEMO on the Archimate models.


ArchiMate DEMO Enterprise Engineering Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Ontology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Austin, J.L.: How to do things with words. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1962)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bunge, M.A.: Treatise on Basic Philosophy. A World of Systems, vol. 4. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Denning, P., Medina-Mora, R.: Completing the loops. In: ORSA/TIMS Interfaces, vol. 25, May 3-June, pp. 42–57 (1995)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dietz, J.L.G.: Enterprise Ontology – theory and methodology. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dietz, J.L.G.: Architecture – building strategy into design, Sdu Netherlands (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Special issue of Communications of the ACM 49(5), 59–64 (May 2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Habermas, J.: Theorie des Kommunikatives Handelns, Erster Band. Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main (1981)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoogervorst, J.A.P., Dietz, J.L.G.: Enterprise Architecture in Enterprise Engineering. Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architecture 3(1) (March 2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Iacob, M.-E., Jonkers, H.: Quantitative Analysis of Enterprise Architectures. Enschede: Telematica Instituut, Archimate Deliverable 3.5.1b/v2.0. TI/RS/2004/006 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Langefors, B.: Information System Theory. Information Systems 2, 207–219 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lankhorst, M., et al.: Enterprise Architecture at Work. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Searle, J.R.: Speech Acts, an Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Seligman, P.S., Wijers, G.M., Sol, H.G.: Analyzing the structure of I.S. methodologies; an alternative approach. In: Maes, R. (ed.) Proceedings of the First Dutch Conference on Information Systems, Amersfoort (1989)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Strijdhaftig, D.: DEMO and ARIS – developing a consistent coupling, Master Thesis TU Delft (2008)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weinberg, G.M.: An Introduction to General Systems Thinking. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (1975)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wittgenstein, L.: Tractatus logico-philosophicus. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London (1922) (German text with an English translation by C.K. Ogden)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland Ettema
    • 1
  • Jan L. G. Dietz
    • 2
  1. 1.Logica ConsultingNetherlands
  2. 2.Delft University of TechnologyThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations