Computational Intelligence: The Legacy of Alan Turing and John von Neumann

  • Heinz Mühlenbein
Part of the Intelligent Systems Reference Library book series (ISRL, volume 1)


In this chapter fundamental problems of collaborative computational intelligence are discussed. The problems are distilled from the seminal research of Alan Turing and John von Neumann. For Turing the creation of machines with human-like intelligence was only a question of programming time. In his research he identified the most relevant problems concerning evolutionary computation, learning, and structure of an artificial brain. Many problems are still unsolved, especially efficient higher learning methods which Turing called initiative. Von Neumann was more cautious. He doubted that human-like intelligent behavior could be described unambiguously in finite time and finite space. Von Neumann focused on self-reproducing automata to create more complex systems out of simpler ones. An early proposal from John Holland is analyzed. It centers on adaptability and population of programs. The early research of Newell, Shaw, and Simon is discussed. They use the logical calculus to discover proofs in logic. Only a few recent research projects have the broad perspectives and the ambitious goals of Turing and von Neumann. As examples the projects Cyc, Cog, and JANUS are discussed.


Cellular Automaton Computational Intelligence Turing Machine Adaptive System Humanoid Robot 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinz Mühlenbein
    • 1
  1. 1.Fraunhofer Institut Autonomous intelligent Systems Schloss BirlinghovenSankt AugustinGermany

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