Volcanoes “Monuments of Nature”

  • Konstantinos G. KyriakopoulosEmail author


Volcanoes are the surface expression of the interior part of the earth’s crust. In general they are formed when melting material rises from depth and leaks into the earth’s crust. The incandescent (molten) rock underlying the volcano, called magma, erupts as lava and pyroclastic products on the surface, forming a large cone. Volcanoes occur into four main contexts: (i) subduction (convergent) zones, (ii) areas of spreading (iii) intraplate geotectonic environments and (iv) at hot spots in the lithosphere. As monuments of nature, volcanoes always have cultural dimensions. They are very attractive places of great interest for geology as well as for human history and environmental evolution. In the past the observation of, and reference to, natural phenomena has been in poetry. Throughout the world, volcanoes, rocks, mountains, lakes, caves or other geological formations have been used for rituals, or inspired artists, travellers and myths. For example, the description of the eruption, in AD 79, of Vesuvius by Pliny the Younger is essential for volcanology. Volcanoes are attractive places for anyone wishing to visit, explore, and photograph; they offer a fascinating adventure for professional volcanologists as well as for amateur enthusiasts.


Volcanic Rock Lava Flow Pyroclastic Flow Lava Dome Volcanic Product 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Mineralogy and Petrology, Department of Geology and GeoenvironmentNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece

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