Site and Risk Factors of Antisperm Antibodies Production in the Male Population

  • Marcelo Marconi
  • Wolfgang Weidner


The pathophysiology of anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) formation is unclear. The concept that a simple defect of the blood–testis barrier triggers ASA formation is not sufficiently supported by clinical evidence. The only condition inducing almost permanently high titers of ASA are surgical interventions of the epididymis and vas deferens. The role of other favorable conditions such as obstruction of the MRT due to inflammatory and postinflammatory changes, tearing of the blood–testis barrier because of local inflammation, decrease of the immunomodulatory factors in seminal plasma, or cross-reactivity between sperm antigens and those of microorganisms is not sufficiently supported by clinical studies. This concerns also varicocele, cryptorchidism, and orchidopexy. As a singular phenomenon, unprotected anal intercourse of men having sex with men appears to be a significant risk factor.


Seminal Plasma Unprotected Anal Intercourse Chlamydia Trachomatis Testicular Tumor Testicular Torsion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of ChileSantiagoChile

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