Modelling Customer Behaviour in Multi-channel Service Distribution

  • Dick Heinhuis
  • Erik J. de Vries
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing book series (LNBIP, volume 23)


Financial service providers are innovating their distribution strategy into multi-channel strategies. The success of a multi-channel approach and the high investments made in information systems and enterprise architectures depends on the adoption and multi-channel usage behaviour of consumers. We build a model that explains such multi-channel customer behaviour. We take the Technology Acceptance Model as a starting point and extent this model with insights from Expectation Disconfirmation Theory and Customer Choice theory. The model takes into consideration three important elements of multi-channel customer behaviour: trial/adoption, choice and continued use. The model is sophisticated, yet simple and refers to expectations and experiences with concrete channels (which are actually perceived by customers), not to abstract notions like for instance channel configurations.


multi-channeling customer behaviour Technology Acceptance Model Expectation Disconfirmation Theory Consideration set 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ahn, T., Ruy, S., Han, I.: The impact of the online and offline features on the user acceptance of Internet shopping malls. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 3, 405–420 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ajzen, I.: Perceived Behavioral Control, Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and the Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 32, 1–20 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ajzen, I., Madden, T.J.: Prediction of Goal-Directed Behavior: Attitudes, Intentions, and Perceived Behavioral Control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 22, 453–474 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson, E., Day, G.S., Rangan, V.K.: Strategic channel design. Sloan Management Review 38(4), 59–69 (1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Balasubramanian, S., Raghunathan, R., Mahajan, V.: Consumers in a multi-channel environment: product utility, process utitlity and channel choice. Journal of Interactive Marketing 19(2), 12–30 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benbasat, I., Barki, H.: Qua Vadis, TAM? Journal of the Association for Information Systems 8(4), 211–218 (2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bendoly, E., Blocher, J.D., Bretthauer, K.M., Krishnan, S., Venkataramanan, M.A.: Online/In-Store Integration and Customer Retention. Journal of Service Research 7(4), 313–327 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bhattacherjee, A.: Understanding Information Systems Continuance: An Expectation-Confirmation Model. MIS Quarterly 25(3), 351–370 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bhattacherjee, A.: An empirical analysis of the antecedents of electronic commerce service continuance. Decision Support Systems 32, 201–214 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bhattacherjee, A., Premkumar, G.: Understanding Changes in Belief and Attitude Toward Information Technology Usage: A Theoretical Model and Longitudinal Test. MIS Quarterly 28(2), 229–254 (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Black, N.J., Lockett, A., Ennew, C., Winklhofer, H., McKechnie, S.: Modelling consumer choice of distribution channels: an illustration from financial services. International Journal of Bank Marketing 20(4), 161–173 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blackwell, R.D., Miniard, P.W., Engel, J.F.: Consumer Behavior, 9th edn. South-Western, division of Thomson Learning, Mason, Ohio (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bradley, L., Stewart, K.: The Diffusion of Online Banking. Journal of Marketing Management 19, 1087–1109 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cadotte, E.R., Woodruff, R.B., Jenkins, R.L.: Expectations and Norms in Models of Consumer Satisfaction. Journal of Marketing Research XXIV, 305–314 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Calantone, R.J., Griffith, D.A., Yalcinkaya, G.: An Empirical Examination of a Technology Adoption Model for the Context of China. Journal of International Marketing 14(4), 1–27 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chakravarti, A., Janiszewski, C.: The Influence of Macro-Level Motives on Consideration Set Composition in Novel Purchase Situations. Journal of Consumer Research 30, 244–258 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carlson, P.J., Davis, G.B.: An Investigation of Media Selection Among Directors and Managers: From “Self” to “Other” Orientation. MIS Quarterly, 335 – 362 (September 1998)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cheng, J.M., Sheen, G.-J., Lou, G.-C.: Consumer acceptance of the internet as a channel of distribution in Taiwan – a channel function perspective. Technovation 26, 856–864 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Childers, T.L., Carr, C.L., Peck, J., Carson, S.: Hedonic and utilitarian motivations for online retail shopping behvior. Journal of Retailing 77, 511–535 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Coelho, F.J., Easingwood, C.: Multiple Channel Systems in Services: Pros, Cons and Issues. The Service Industries Journal 24(5), 1–29 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Daft, R.L., Lengel, R.H.: Organizational Information Requirements. Media Richness And Structural Design 32(5), 554–571 (1986)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Daft, R.L., Lengel, R.H., Trevino, L.K.: Message Equivocality, Media Selection, and Manager Performance: Implications for Information Systems. MIS Quarterly, 355 – 366 (September 1987)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Davis, F.D.: Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 318 – 340 (September 1989)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Davis, F.D., Bagozzi, R.P., Warshaw, P.R.: User Acceptance of Computer Technology: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Models. Management Science 35(8), 982–1003 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    DeLone, W.H., McLean, E.R.: Information Systems Success: The Quest for the Dependent Variable. Information Systems Research 3(1), 60–95 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    DeLone, W.H., McLean, E.R.: The DeLone and McLean Model of Information Systems Success: A Ten-Year Update. Journal of Management Information Systems 19(4), 9–30 (2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    DeLone, W.H., McLean, E.R.: Measuring e-Commerce Success: Applying the DeLone & McLean Information Systems Success Model. International Journal of Electronic Commerce 9(1), 31–47 (2004)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dennis, A.R., Kinney, S.T.: Testing Media Richness Theory in the New Media: The Effects of Cues, Feedback, and Task Equivocality. Information Systems Research 9(3), 256–274 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Devaraj, S., Fan, M., Kohli, R.: Antecedents of B2C Channel Satisfaction and Preference: Validating e-Commerce Metrics. Information Systems Research 13(3), 316–333 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    De Vries, E.J.: Multi-Channeling and Front, Mid and Back Office Architectures in the Financial Service Industry. In: IEEE Second International Workshop on Enterprise Applications and Services in the Finance Industry at the 13th European Conference of Information Systems, Regenburg, May 25-28 (2005)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    De Vries, E.J., Brijder, H.G.: Knowledge Management in Hybrid Supply Channels: a Case Study. International Journal of Technology Management 20(5/6/7/8), 569–587 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Easingwood, C., Storey, C.: The Value of Multi-Channel Distribution Systems in the Financial Services Sector. The Service Industries Journal 16(2), 223–241 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Evans, P.B., Wurster, T.S.: Strategy and the new economics of information. Harvard Business Review, 71–82 (September - October 1997)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Evans, P.B., Wurster, T.S.: Getting Real About Virtual Commerce. Harvard Business Review, 85–94 (November – December 1999)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fishbein, M.: An Investigation of the Relationships between Beliefs about an Object and the Attitude toward That Object. Human Relations 16, 233–240 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fishbein, M., Ajzen, I.: Belief, Attitude, Intention And Behavior. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading (1975)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ganesh, J., Padmabhuni, S., Moitra, D.: Web Services and Multi-Channel Integration: A Proposed Framework. In: Procedings of the IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2004). IEEE, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gefen, D., Karahanna, E., Straub, D.W.: Trust and TAM in Online Shopping: An Integrated Model. MIS Quarterly 27(1), 51–90 (2003)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Goodhue, D.L., Thompson, R.L.: Task-Technology Fit and Individual Performance. MIS Quarterly, 213–236 (June 1995)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gutman, J.: A Means-End Chain Model Based on Consumer Categorization Processes. Journal of Marketing 46, 60–72 (Spring, 1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gutman, J.: Analyzing Consumer Orientations Toward Beverages Through Means-End Chain Analysis. Psychology & Marketing 1(34), 23–43 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gutman, J.: Means-End Chains as Goal Hierachies. Psychology & Marketing 14(6), 545–560 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Holloway, B.B., Beatty, S.E.: Service Failure in Online Retailing: A Recovery Opportunity. Journal of Service Research 6(1), 92–105 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hong, S., Thong, J.Y.L., Tam, K.Y.: Understanding continued information technology usage behavior: A comparison of three models in the context of mobile internet. Decision Support Systems 42, 1819–1834 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Howard, J.A.: Marketing Management: Analysis and Planning, Irwin, Illinois (1963)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hsu, M.-H., Chiu, C.-M.: Predicting electronic service continuance with a decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Behaviour & Information Technology 23(5), 359–373 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jiang, J.J., Hsu, M.K., Klein, G., Lin, B.: E-commerce user behavior model: an empirical study. Human Systems Management 19, 265–276 (2000)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jones, T.O., Sasser, W.E.: Why Satisfied Customers Defect. Harvard Business Review, 88–99 (November/December 1995)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Karahanna, E., Straub, D.W.: The psychological origins of perceived usefulness and ease-of-use. Information & Management 35, 237–250 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Keaveney, S.M.: Customer Switching Behavior in Service Industries: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Marketing 59, 71–82 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    King, W.R., He, J.: A meta-analysis of the technology acceptance model. Information & Management 43, 740–755 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Klenosky, D.B., Gengler, C.E., Mulvey, M.S.: Understanding the Factors Influencing Ski Destination Choice: A Means-End Analytic Approach. Journal of Leisure Research 25(4), 362–379 (1993)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kotler, P.: Marketing Management, 4th edn. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1980)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Koufaris: MApplying the Technology Acceptance Model and Flow Theory to Online Consumer Behavior. Information Systems Research 13(2), 205–223 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kuisma, T., Laukkanen, T., Hiltunen, M.: Mapping the reasons for resistance to Internet banking: A means-end approach. International Journal of Information Management 27, 75–85 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lai, V.S., Li, H.: Technology acceptance model for internet banking: an invariance analysis. Information & Management 42, 373–386 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Laukkanen, T.: Customer preferred channel attributes in multi-channel electronic banking. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 35(5), 393–412 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Laukkanen, T.: Internet vs mobile banking: comparing customer value perceptions. Business Process Management Journal 13(6), 788–797 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lederer, A.L., Mirchandani, D.A., Sims, K.: The Search for Strategic Advantage from the World Wide Web. International Journal of Electronic Commerce 5(4), 117–133 (2001)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Leitner, M., Wolkerstorfer, P., Sefelin, R., Tscheligi, M.: Mobile Multimedia: Identifying User Values Using the Means-End Theory. In: MobileHCI 2008. ACM, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lucas Jr., H.C., Swanson, E.B., Zmud, R.W.: Implementation, Innovation, and Related Themes Over The Years In Information Systems. Journal of the Association for Information Systems 8(4), 206–210 (2007)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lutz, R.J.: Changing Brand Attitudes Through Modification of Cognitive Structure. Journal of Consumer Research 1, 49–59 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    McKinney, V., Yoon, K., Zahedi, F.: The Measurement of Web-Customer Satisfaction: An Expectation and Disconfirmation Approach. Information Systems Research 13(3), 296–315 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Myers, J.B., Pickersgill, A.D., Van Metre, E.S.: Steering customers to the right channels. McKinsey Quarterly (4), 36–47 (2004)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Neslin, S.A., Grewal, D., Leghorn, R., Shankar, V., Teerling, M.L., Thomas, J.S., Verhoef, P.C.: Challenges and Opportunities in Multi-channel Customer Management. Journal of Service Research 9(2), 95–112 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ngwenyama, O.K., Lee, A.S.: Communication Richness in Electronic Mail: Critical Social Theory and the Contextuality of Meaning. MIS Quarterly, 145 – 167 (June 1997)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Nysveen, H., Pedersen, P.E., Thorbjørnsen, Berthon, P.: Mobilizing the Brand: The Effects of Mobile Services on Brand Relationship and Main Channel Use. Journal of Service Research 7(3), 257–276 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Oliver, R.L.: A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions. Journal of Marketing Research XVII, 460–469 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Oliver, R.L.: Cognitive, Affective, and Attribute Bases of the Satisfaction Response. Journal of Consumer Research 20, 418–430 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Oliver, R.L., Rust, R.T., Varki, S.: Customer Delight: Foundations, Findings, and Managerial Insight. Journal of Retailing 73(3), 311–336 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Otondo, R.F., Van Scotter, J.R., Allen, D.G., Palvia, P.: The complexity of richness: Media, message, and communication outcomes. Information & Management 45, 21–30 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A., Berry, L.L.: A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research. Journal of Marketing 49, 41–50 (Fall, 1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A., Malhotra, A.: A Multi-Item Scale for Assessing Electronic Service Quality. Journal of Service Research 7(3), 213–233 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pavlou, P.A.: Consumer Acceptance of Electronic Commerce: Integrating Trust and Risk with the Technology Acceptance Model. International Journal of Electronic Commerce 7(3), 101–134 (2003)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pavlou, P.A., Fygenson, M.: Understanding and Predicting Electronic Commerce Adoption: An Extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior. MIS Quarterly 30(1), 115–143 (2006)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Qiu, L., Benbasat, I.: An Investigation into the Effects of Text-to-Speech Voice and 3D Avatars on the Perception of Presence and Flow of Live Help in Electronic Commerce. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 12(4), 329–355 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Reichheld, F.F.: Learning from Customer Defections. Harvard Business Review, 56 – 69 (March/April 1996)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Reynolds, T.J., Gutman, J.: Laddering Theory, Method, Analysis, And Interpretation. Journal of Advertising Research, 11–31 (February/March 1988)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rice, R.E., Shook, D.E.: Relationships of job categories and organizational levels of use of communication channels, including electronic mail: a meta-analysis and extension. Journal of Management Studies 27(2), 195–229 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rogers, E.M.: Diffusion of innovation. The Free Press, New York (1962)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rokeach, M.: The Role Of Values In Public Opinion Research. Public Opinion Quarterly 32(4), 547–559 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Roos, I.: Switching Processes in Customer Relationships. Journal of Service Research 2(1), 68–85 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Schiffman, L.G., Kanuk, L.L.: Consumer behavior. Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River (2007)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sharma, A., Krishan, R.: Clicks Only, Clicks and Bricks, and Bricks Only: Are Retail Salespeople an Important Factor in Choice. Journal of Marketing Management 18, 317–336 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Spiggle, S., Sewall, M.A.: A Choice Sets Model of Retail Selection. Journal of Marketing 51, 97–111 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sun, H., Zhang, P.: A Methodological Analysis of User Technology Acceptance. In: Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sundarraj, R.P., Wu, J.: Using information-systems constructs to study online- and telephone-banking technologies. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 4, 427–443 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Swan, J.E., Trawick, I.F.: Disconfirmation of Expectations and Satisfaction with a Retail Service. Journal of Retailing 57(3), 49–67 (1981)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tan, M., Teo, T.S.H.: Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking. Journal of the Association for Information Systems 1(5), 1–42 (2000)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Taylor, S., Todd, P.A.: Understanding Information Technology Usage: A Test of Competing Models. Information Systems Research 6(2), 144–176 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Walley, P., Amin, V.: Automation in a customer contact environment. International Journal of Operations & Production Management 14(5), 86–100 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wang, W., Benbasat, I.: Trust in and Adoption of Online Recommendation Agents. Journal of the Association for Information Systems 6(3), 72–101 (2005)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wells, J.D., Sarker, S., Urbaczewski, A., Sarker, S.: Studying Customer Evaluations of Electronic Commerce Applications: A Review and Adaptation of the Task-Technology Fit Perspective. In: Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2003). IEEE, Los Alamitos (2003)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wixom, B.H., Todd, P.A.: A Theoretical Integration of User Satisfaction and Technology Acceptance. Information Systems Research 16(1), 85–102 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wu, J.-H., Wang, S.-C.: What drives mobile commerce? An empirical evaluation of the revised technology acceptance model. Information & Management 42, 719–729 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Zeithaml, V.A.: Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality, and Value: A Means-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence. Journal of Marketing 52, 2–22 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dick Heinhuis
    • 1
  • Erik J. de Vries
    • 2
  1. 1.Universiteit van Amsterdam Business School and Hogeschool van Amsterdam Instituut voor InformaticaAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Universiteit van Amsterdam Business SchoolAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations