Focal Systems for Pfaffian Systems with Characteristics
Focal systems are a generalization to the case of Pfaffian system with characteristics of the classical notion of focal curves for first-order scalar partial diffeerntial equations. We show how focal systems can be used to prove local normal form results for second-order scalar hyperbolic equations in the plane. We also illustrate their use in integration methods for first-order equations.
KeywordsIntegral Manifold Order Partial Differential Equation Focal System Pfaffian System Exterior Differential System
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