Hypertextual Programming for Domain-Specific End-User Development

  • Sebastian Ortiz-Chamorro
  • Gustavo Rossi
  • Daniel Schwabe
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5435)


Domain-specific languages (DSLs) have successfully been used for end-user development. However, dealing with language syntax poses significant learning challenges. In this paper, we introduce hypertextual programming, a technique that represents language syntax as hypertext. With this technique, instead of dealing with textual languages, users can inspect and construct their programs mainly by using navigation. Beyond merely representing the syntax, hypertext can be used to provide various views of a single program code. Nevertheless, to reap the benefits of this technique, adequate hypertextual editors must be built. This paper argues that many of the lessons learned in the web engineering area can be used to deal with this problem. Millions of users navigate the World Wide Web. Hypertextual programming leverages this widely available end-user skill to facilitate the construction of computer programs.


hypertextual programming end-user development interfaces for end-user development domain-specific languages web engineering 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Martin, J.: An Information Systems Manifesto. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1984)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cypher, A. (ed.): Watch What I Do: Programming by Demonstration. MIT Press, Cambridge (1993)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lieberman, H., Paternò, F., Klann, M., Wulf, V.: End-User Development: An Emerging Paradigm. In: Lieberman, H., Paternò, F., Wulf, V. (eds.) End User Development, pp. 1–8. Springer, Netherlands (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jess, the Rule Engine for the Java Platform,
  5. 5.
    Burnett, M.M., Baker, M.J., Bohus, C., Carlson, P., Yang, S., van Zee, P.: Scaling up Visual Programming Languages. IEEE Computer 28(3), 45–54 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Conklin, J.: Hypertext: an introduction and survey. Computer 20(9), 17–41 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Murugesan, S., Desphande, Y.: Web Engineering. Software Engineering and Web Application Development. LNCS-Hot Topics. Springer, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schwabe, D., Rossi, G.: An Object Oriented Approach to Web-Based Application Design. Theory and Practice of Object Systems 4(4) (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fons, J., Pelechano, V., Albert, M., Pastor, O.: Development of Web applications from Web enhanced conceptual schemas. In: Song, I.-Y., Liddle, S.W., Ling, T.-W., Scheuermann, P. (eds.) ER 2003. LNCS, vol. 2813, pp. 232–245. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ceri, S., Fraternali, P., Matera, M.: Conceptual modeling of data-intensive Web applications. IEEE Internet Computing 6(4), 20–30 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Knapp, A., Koch, N., Zhang, G., Hassler, H.M.: Modeling business processes in Web applications with ArgoUWE. In: Baar, T., Strohmeier, A., Moreira, A., Mellor, S.J. (eds.) UML 2004. LNCS, vol. 3273, pp. 69–83. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    De Troyer, O.: Audience-driven Web design. In: Rossi, M., Siau, K. (eds.) Information Modeling in the New Millennium. IDEA Group Publishing, Hershey (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bray, T., Paoli, J., Sperberg-McQueen, C.M., Maler, E., Yergeau, F.: Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0., 3rd edn. W3C Recommendation (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ortiz-Chamorro, S.: Cytera. Rules Language Specification. Technical Report, CyteraSystems (2001)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ortiz-Chamorro, S., Aquino, N., Rubin, R., Cernuzzi, L.: AtOOmix: un Lenguaje Extensible de Reglas de Negocios. In: Proceedings of CLEI 2008 (to appear) (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Thompson, H.S., et al.: XML Schema Part 1: Structures, 2nd edn. W3C Recommendation (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Biron, P.V., Malhotra, A.: XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2nd edn. W3C Recommendation (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nielsen, J.: Designing Web Usability: The Practice of Simplicity. New Riders Publishing, Indianapolis (1999)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hypermedia Design Patterns Repository,
  21. 21.
    Rossi, G., Schwabe, D., Garrido, A.: Design reuse in hypermedia applications development. In: Proceedings of Hypertext 1997, pp. 57–66 (1997)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Østerbye, K.: Literate Smalltalk Programming Using Hypertext. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 21(2), 138–145 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anderson, K.M., Taylor, R.N., Whitehead, E.J.: Chimera: hypermedia for heterogeneous software development enviroments. ACM Transactions on Information Systems 18(3), 211–245 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Garg, P.K., Scacchi, W.: ISHYS: Designing an Intelligent Software Hypertext System. IEEE Expert: Intelligent Systems and Their Applications 4(3), 52–63 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shu, N.: Visual Programming. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York (1988)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sebastian Ortiz-Chamorro
    • 1
    • 4
  • Gustavo Rossi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daniel Schwabe
    • 3
  1. 1.LIFIA, Universidad Nacional de La PlataArgentina
  2. 2.CONICETArgentina
  3. 3.Departamento de Informática, PUC-RioBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de Electrónica e InformáticaUniversidad Católica de AsunciónParaguay

Personalised recommendations