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Structural Analysis of Biological and Technical Nanocomposites by X-Ray Scattering

  • P. NawanitEmail author
  • H. Zhou
  • B. Chu
  • C. Burger
  • B.S. Hsiao
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 776)

Abstract

Nanocomposites are an interesting class of materials where the mechanical properties and other characteristics of a polymeric matrix are modified, usually strongly enhanced, by inclusion of a nanoscopically dispersed crystalline inorganic filler. Crucial parameters are not only the volume fraction of the filler but also and especially the total interface area of the heterogeneous composite system. Nanocomposites are of great significance both for naturally occurring and for artificially synthesized materials. The heterogeneous nature of the nanocomposites ensures a good density contrast at the relevant length scales so that X-ray scattering techniques can provide useful qualitative and quantitative information about the nanocomposite structure and its preferred orientation. In this chapter, the structural analysis of two-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns is discussed for polymer–inorganic nanocomposites filled with platelet-shaped mineral crystals showing preferred orientation. Two examples are analyzed in detail: (1) Synthetic nanocomposites of polymers filled with organically modified clay and (2) the biological nanocomposite bone consisting of a fibrous collagen matrix with embedded nano-sized apatite platelets. In both cases, the application of adequate analysis techniques leads to significant quantitative and qualitative structural information that goes well beyond what would be achieved using less refined methods.

Keywords

Prefer Orientation Thickness Distribution Collagen Molecule Mineral Crystal Relevant Length Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Nawanit
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. Zhou
    • 1
  • B. Chu
    • 1
  • C. Burger
    • 1
  • B.S. Hsiao
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentStony Brook UniversityStony Brook

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