Watermarking of Raw Digital Images in Camera Firmware: Embedding and Detection

  • Peter Meerwald
  • Andreas Uhl
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5414)


In this paper we investigate ‘real-time’ watermarking of single-sensor digital camera images (often called ‘raw’ images) and blind watermark detection in demosaicked images. We describe the software-only implementation of simple additive spread-spectrum embedding in the firmware of a digital camera. For blind watermark detection, we develop a scheme which adaptively combines the polyphase components of the demosaicked image, taking advantage of the interpolated image structure. Experimental results show the benefits of the novel detection approach for several demosaicking techniques.


Watermarking demosaicking signal detection firmware 


  1. 1.
    Hirakawa, K., Parks, T.W.: Adaptive homogeneity-directed demosaicing algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 14(3), 360–369 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chang, E., Cheung, S., Pan, D.Y.: Color filter array recovery using a threshold-based variable number of gradients. In: Proceedings of SPIE, Sensors, Cameras, and Applications for Digital Photography, San Jose, CA, USA, January 1999, vol. 3650, pp. 36–43 (1999)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cox, I.J., Miller, M.L., Bloom, J.A., Fridrich, J., Kalker, T.: Digital Watermarking and Steganography. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen, M., Fridrich, J., Goljan, M., Lukas, J.: Determining image origin and integrity using sensor noise. IEEE Transactions on Information Security and Forensics 3(1), 74–90 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Popescu, A.C., Farid, H.: Exposing digital forgeries in color filter array interpolated images. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 53(10), 3948–3959 (2005)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blythe, P., Fridrich, J.: Secure digital camera. In: Digital Forensic Research Workshop, Baltimore, MD, USA (August 2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tian, L., Tai, H.M.: Secure images captured by digital camera. In: International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Digest of Technical Papers, ICCE 2006, pp. 341–342. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mohanty, S.P., Kougianos, E., Ranganathan, N.: VLSI architecture and chip for combined invisible robust and fragile watermarking. IET Computers & Digital Techniques 1(5), 600–611 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nelson, G.R., Julien, G.A., Yadid-Pecht, O.: CMOS image sensor with watermarking capabilities. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS 2005, vol. 5, pp. 5326–5329. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lukac, R., Plataniotis, K.K.: Camera image watermark transfer by demosaicking. In: Proceedings of the 48th International Symposium ELMAR 2006, Multimedia Signal Processing and Communication, Zadar, Croatia, pp. 9–12 (June 2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Giannoula, A., Boulgouris, N.V., Hatzinakos, D., Plataniotis, K.N.: Watermark detection for noisy interpolated images. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems 53(5), 359–363 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vaidyanathan, P.P.: Multirate digital filters, filter banks, polyphase networks, and applications: a tutorial. Proceedings of the IEEE 78(1), 56–93 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Meerwald
    • 1
  • Andreas Uhl
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer SciencesUniversity of SalzburgSalzburgAustria

Personalised recommendations