Ontologies in F-Logic

  • Jürgen AngeleEmail author
  • Michael Kifer
  • Georg Lausen
Part of the International Handbooks on Information Systems book series (INFOSYS)


Frame Logic (F-logic) combines the advantages of conceptual modeling that come from object-oriented frame-based languages with the declarative style, compact and simple syntax, and the well defined semantics of logic-based languages. F-logic supports typing, meta-reasoning, complex objects, methods, classes, inheritance, rules, queries, modularization, and scoped inference. In this paper we describe the capabilities of knowledge representation systems based on F-logic and illustrate the use of this logic for ontology specification. We give an overview of the syntax and semantics of the language and discuss the main ideas behind the various implementations. Finally, we present a concrete application deployed in the automotive industry.


Predicate Symbol Cardinality Constraint Class Hierarchy Path Expression Class Person 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    J. Angele, M. Erdmann, H.P. Schnurr, D. Wenke: Ontology based knowledge management in automotive engineering scenarios. In: Proceedings of ESTC 2007, 1st European Semantic Technology Conference, 31.05.–01.06.2007, Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Abiteboul, R. Hull, V. Vianu: Foundations of Databases. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1995.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Abiteboul, G. Lausen, H. Uphoff, E. Waller: Methods and Rules. In: Proceedings SIGMOD Conference, 1993, pp. 32–41.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Angele, H.-P. Schnurr, S. Staab, R. Studer: The Times they are A-Changin’ – The corporate history analyzer. In: D. Mahling and U. Reimer (eds.). Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management. Basel, Switzerland, October 30–31, 2000.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Angele, H.-P. Schnurr: Do not use this gear with a switching lever! Automotive industry. In: Proceedings of the Industrial Track of the Fourth International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2005), Galway, Ireland, November 6–10, 2005.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Angele, E. Mnch, H. Oppermann, H. Rudat, H. Schnurr: Customer service accelerated by semantics. In: Proceedings of the Industrial Track of the Fifth International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2006), Athens, USA, November 7–9, 2005.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. de Bruijn, S. Heymans: RDF and logic: Reasoning and extension. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Web Semantics (WebS 2007), Regensburg, Germany. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, 2007.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P.P. Chen: The entity relationship model. Toward a unified view of data. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 1, 9–36, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. Baader, D. Calvanese, D. McGuinness, D. Nardi, P. Patel-Schneider (eds.): The Description Logic Handbook. Cambridge University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Beeri, R. Ramakrishnan: On the power of magic. Journal of Logic Programming, 10, 255–300, 1991.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Decker, D. Brickley, J. Saarela, J. Angele: A query and inference service for RDF. In: Proceedings of the W3C Query Language Workshop (QL-98), Boston, MA, 3–4 December, 1998.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Decker, M. Erdmann, D. Fensel, R. Studer: OntoBroker: Ontology based access to distributed and semi-structured information. In: R. Meersman et al. (ed.). Database Semantics: Semantic Issues in Multimedia Systems. Kluwer Academic, Boston, MA, 1999.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    J. Frohn, G. Lausen, H. Uphoff: Access to objects by path expressions and rules. In: Proceedings VLDB, 1994, pp. 273–284.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Frohn, R. Himmeröder, P.-T. Kandzia, C. Schlepphorst: How to write F-logic programs in FLORID. Available from, 1997.
  16. 16.
    G. Yang, M. Kifer, C, Zhao, H. Wan: The FLORA-2 manual. Available from
  17. 17.
    H. Garcia-Molina, Y. Papakonstantinou, D. Quass, A. Rajaraman, Y. Sagiv, J.D. Ullman, V. Vassalos, J. Widom: The TSIMMIS approach to mediation: Data models and languages. JIIS 8(2), 117–132, 1997.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Van Gelder, K.A. Ross, J.S. Schlipf. The well-founded semantics for general logic programs. Journal of the ACM, 38(3), 620-650, 1991.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Kifer: Nonmonotonic reasoning in FLORA-2. In: Proceedings of Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3662. Springer, Berlin, 2005, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Kifer, A. Bernstein, P.M. Lewis: Database systems: An application oriented approach, 2nd edition. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 2005.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Kifer, J. de Bruijn, H. Boley, D. Fensel: A realistic architecture for the semantic Web. In: Proceedings of Rules and Rule Markup Languages for the Semantic Web, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3791. Springer, Berlin, 2005, pp. 17–29.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Kifer, E.L. Lozinskii: A framework for an efficient implementation of deductive databases. In: Proc. of the 6th Advanced Database Symposium, Aug. 1986, Tokyo Japan, pp. 109–116.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Kifer, G. Lausen, J. Wu: Logical foundations of object-oriented and frame-based languages. Journal of the ACM, 42, 741–843, 1995.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Liu: Deductive database languages: Problems and solutions. ACM Computing Surveys, 31(1), 27–62, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    B. Ludäscher, R. Himmeröder, G. Lausen, W. May: Christian Schlepphorst. Managing semistructured data with FLORID: A deductive object-oriented perspective. Information Systems 23(8), 589–613, 1998.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    W. May: A rule-based querying and updating language for XML. In: Proceedings of DBPL 2001, LNCS 2397, pp. 165–181.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    W. May, P.-T. Kandzia: Nonmonotonic inheritance in object-oriented deductive database languages. Journal of Logic and Computation, 11(4), 2001.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Dean, D. Connolly, F. van Harmelen, J. Hendler, I. Horrocks, D.L. McGuinness, P.F. Patel-Schneider, L.A. Stein: OWL Web Ontology Language 1.0 Reference. WWW Consortium, November, 2002.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. Elmasri, S.B. Navathe: Fundamentals of database systems, 5th edition. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 2006.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Sintek, S. Decker: TRIPLE – A query, inference, and transformation language for the semantic Web. International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC), June 2002.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. Staab, M. Erdmann, A. Mädche, S. Decker: An extensible approach for modeling ontologies in RDF(S). In: Rolf Grütter (ed.). Knowledge Media in Healthcare: Opportunities and Challenges. Idea Group Publishing, Hershey, 2001.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Y. Sure, S. Staab, J. Angele: OntoEdit: Guiding ontology development by methodology and inferencing. In: R. Meersman, Z. Tari et al. (eds.). Proceedings of the Confederated International Conferences CoopIS, DOA and ODBASE 2002, 28th October–1st November, 2002, University of California, Irvine, USA, Springer, Berlin, LNCS 2519, pp. 1205–1222.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Staab, A. Maedche: Knowledge portals – Ontologies at work. AI Magazine, 21(2), Summer 2001.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. Yang, M. Kifer: Reasoning about anonymous resources and meta statements on the semantic Web. Journal on Data Semantics, LNCS 2800, 69–97, 2003.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    G. Yang, M. Kifer: Inheritance in rule-based frame systems: Semantics and inference. Journal on Data Semantics, VII,79–135, 2006.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    G. Yang, M. Kifer, C. Zhao: FLORA-2: A rule-based knowledge representation and inference infrastructure for the semantic Web. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Ontologies, Databases and Applications of Semantics (ODBASE-2003). Springer, Berlin, LNCS 2888, pp. 671–688.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ontoprise GmbHKarlsruheGermany
  2. 2.State University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA
  3. 3.Georges-Koehler-AlleeAlbert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgFreiburgGermany

Personalised recommendations