Choosing a Technique in Breast Reduction

  • Donald A. Hudson

The perfect procedure to reduce the breast has been sought for centuries. Kraske [1], modifying the technique of Lexer [2], suggested an inverted Thpattern consisting of an inferior vertical wedge glandular excision and a vertical and transverse ellipse of skin. However, lack of understanding of the blood supply to the nipple– areola complex (NAC) led to erratic results, and there was a time when a two-stage procedure was advocated.

Schwarzmann, in 1930 [3], advanced the concept of a dermal pedicle using a superior and medial dermal cutaneous pedicle bridge to the NAC. This improved the safety of the procedure. The search for a reproducible design led Wise [4] to modify the pattern of Nedhoff, which led to the keyhole markings. Wise used a full thickness graffor the NAC.


Breast Reduction Inframammary Fold Inferior Pedicle Vertical Limb Skin Retraction 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald A. Hudson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plastic Reconstructive and Maxillofacial SurgeryGroote Schuur HospitalCape TownSouth Africa

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