Combined Mastopexy/Augmentation

  • Alan A. Parsa
  • Natalie N. Parsa
  • Fereydoun D. Parsa

In all cultures, beautiful breasts are evocative of femininity and sensuality. In the context of modern Western world, breasts have gained a considerable social and psychological importance as witnessed daily in social encounters as well as in the media and on the movie screens.

Representation of breasts in fine arts reached its golden age in the era of classic Greece, where it assumed an importance that surpassed other secondary sexual organs. Centuries later, renaissance artists, heirs to Greek and Roman cultures, played a major role in disseminating classic images of beautiful breasts in paintings and sculptures. Perhaps one of the best examples of such a representation is Leonardo da Vinci's “Leda and the Swan” (Fig. 20.1). “Flora” (Fig. 20.2) is another example and was painted by Leonardo's most favorite student Francesco Melzi (1493–1570) circa 1515. Melzi was most close to Leonardo and was at his bedside when he died in France in 1519 at the court of Francis I. It is strongly hypothesized that Leonardo may have begun Flora in Florence and lef it unfinished as he of en did with many of his other paintings. It is also assumed that the model for Flora is actually the wealthy Florentine lady Mona Lisa Gioconda, whom Leonardo immortalized in the painting by the same name. The great value we attach to these two renaissance paintings, one by Leonardo and the other by his favorite student Francesco Melzi as well as to other paintings such as the “Birth of Venus” (Fig. 20.3) by Sandro Botticelli (1445–1510), and some three centuries later, the “Turkish Bath” (Fig. 20.4) by Ingres (1780–1867), are eloquent testimonies to the important role that feminine beauty and depiction of breasts play in Western societies. One may say — at least as it relates to the Western world — that our perception of what constitutes beautiful and sensuous breasts have not changed for the past 2,500 years.


Breast Augmentation Capsular Contracture Skin Elasticity Lower Contour Silver Sulfadiazine 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan A. Parsa
    • 1
  • Natalie N. Parsa
  • Fereydoun D. Parsa
  1. 1.Medical Education at St. Francis Medical Centre TrentonSeton Hall University School of GraduateHamiltonUSA

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