A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Template Co-update in Biometric Verification Systems

  • Luca Didaci
  • Gian Luca Marcialis
  • Fabio Roli
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5342)


Template update in biometric recognition system is aimed to improve the representativeness of available templates in order to make them adaptive to the large intra-class variations characterizing biometrics (e.g. fingerprints and faces). Among others, semi-supervised approaches to template update have been recently proposed. Since the lack of representativeness is due to the impossibility of sampling all possible variations of a given client biometric, these approaches exploit samples submitted during the recognition phase by adding the “highly genuine” ones to the related client gallery. In particular, the template co-update algorithm, which uses the mutual help of two complementary biometric matchers, has shown promising experimental results. However, no theoretical model has been proposed to explain the behaviour of the co-update algorithm and support the experimental results. This is the goal of this paper. Experimental results show the correctness of the proposed theoretical model.


Face Recognition Biometric System Fingerprint Image Face Matcher Fingerprint Matcher 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Li, S.Z., Jain, A.K. (eds.): Handbook of face recognition. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maltoni, D., Maio, D., Jain, A.K., Prabhakar, S.: Handbook of fingerprint recognition. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Uludag, U., Ross, A., Jain, A.K.: Biometric template selection and update: a case study in fingerprints. Pattern Recognition 37(7), 1533–1542 (2004)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jiang, X., Ser, W.: Online Fingerprint Template Improvement. IEEE Trans. PAMI 24(8), 1121–1126 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ryu, C., Hakil, K., Jain, A.: Template adaptation based fingerprint verification. In: Proc. of ICPR, vol. 4, pp. 582–585 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roli, F., Marcialis, G.L.: Semi-supervised PCA-based face recognition using self-training. In: Yeung, D.-Y., Kwok, J.T., Fred, A., Roli, F., de Ridder, D. (eds.) SSPR 2006 and SPR 2006. LNCS, vol. 4109, pp. 560–568. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roli, F., Didaci, L., Marcialis, G.L.: Template co-update in multimodal biometric systems. In: Lee, S.-W., Li, S.Z. (eds.) ICB 2007. LNCS, vol. 4642, pp. 1194–1202. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Roli, F., Didaci, L., Marcialis, G.L.: Adaptive biometric systems that can improve with use. In: Ratha, N., Govindaraju, V. (eds.) Advances in Biometrics: Sensors, Systems and Algorithms, pp. 447–471. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rattani, A., Marcialis, G.L., Roli, F.: Capturing large intra-class variations of biometric data by template co-updating. In: IEEE Workshop on Biometrics, Int. Conf. on Vision and Pattern Recognition CVPR 2008, Anchorage, Alaska, USA (2008) (in press)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ross, A., Nandakumar, K., Jain, A.K.: Handbook of Multibiometrics. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jain, A.K., Hong, L., Bolle, R.: On-line Fingerprint Verification. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 19(4), 302–314 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Turk, M., Pentland, A.: Eigenfaces for Face Recognition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 3(1), 71–86 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Freni, B., Marcialis, G.L., Roli, F.: Replacement algorithms for fingerprint template update. In: Campilho, A., Kamel, M.S. (eds.) ICIAR 2008. LNCS, vol. 5112. Springer, Heidelberg (in press, 2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luca Didaci
    • 1
  • Gian Luca Marcialis
    • 2
  • Fabio Roli
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pedagogical and Philosophical SciencesUniversity of CagliariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Piazza d’ArmiUniversity of Cagliari, ItalyCagliariItaly

Personalised recommendations