Exploring Non-verbal Behavior Models for Believable Characters

  • Magy Seif El-Nasr
  • Huaxin Wei
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5334)

Abstract

Believable characters constitute an important component of interactive stories. It is, therefore, not surprising to see much research focusing on developing algorithms that enhance character believability within interactive experiences, such as games, interactive narrative, and training environments. These efforts target a variety of problems, including portraying and synchronizing gestures with speech, developing animation tools that allow artists to manipulate and blend motions, or embed emotions within virtual character models. There has been very little research, however, devoted to the study of non-verbal behaviors, specifically mannerisms, patterns of movement including postures, gaze, and timing, and how they vary as a function of character attributes. This paper presents a work in progress of a study conducted to (1) identify key character characteristics recognized by animators using an acting model, and (2) formalize non-verbal behaviors patterns that animators use to express these character characteristics.

Keywords

Believable characters animation acting virtual characters embodied agents articulate 3D characters 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Rickel, J., Marsella, S., Gratch, J., Hill, R., Traum, D., Swartout, W.: Toward a New Generation of Virtual Humans for Interactive Experiences. IEEE Intelligent Systems 17 (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Swartout, W., Hill, R.W.J., Gratch, J., Johnson, L.W., Kyriakakis, C., LaBore, C., Lindheim, R., Marsella, S., Miraglia, D., Moore, B., Morie, J.F., Rickel, J., Thiébaux, M., Tuch, L., Whitney, R.: Toward Holodeck: Integrating Graphics, Sounds, Character, and Story. In: Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Autonomous Agents (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seif El-Nasr, M., Saati, M., Milam, D., Neidenthal, S.: Assassin’s Creed - A multi-cultural Read. Loading (forthcoming)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cassell, J.: Embodied Converstational Agents: Representation and Intelligence in User Interfaces. AI Magazine 22 (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Perlin, K.: Real-time Responsive Animation with Personality. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 1 (1995)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Perlin, K., Goldberg, A.: Improv: A system for Scripting Interactive Actors in Virtual Worlds. Computer Graphics 29 (1995)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Allbeck, J., Badler, N.: Representing and Paramaterizing Behaviors. In: Prendinger, H., Ishizuka, M. (eds.) Life-Like Characters: Tools, Affective Functions and Applications. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cassell, J.: A Framework for Gesture Generation and Interpretation. In: Cipolla, R., Pentland, A. (eds.) Computer Vision in Human-Machine Interaction, pp. 191–215. Cambridge University Press, New York (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aylett, R.S., Louchart, S., Dias, J., Paiva, A., Vala, M.: FearNot! - an experiment in emergent narrative. In: Panayiotopoulos, T., Gratch, J., Aylett, R.S., Ballin, D., Olivier, P., Rist, T. (eds.) IVA 2005. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3661, pp. 305–316. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marsella, S., Gratch, J.: EMA: A Computational Model of Appraisal Dynamics. In: Agent Construction and Emotions, Vienna, Austria (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Seif El-Nasr, M., Ioerger, T., Yen, J.: FLAME - Fuzzy Logic Adaptive Model of Emotions. In: Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, vol. 3, pp. 219–257 (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ekman, P.: Darwin and Facial expression: a Centry of Research in Review. New York Academic Press, New York City (1973)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wallbott, H.G., Scherer, K.R.: Cues and Channels in emotion recognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51, 690–699 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Amaya, K., Bruderlin, A., Calvert, T.: Emotion From Motion. In: Proceedings of the conference on Graphics interface (1996)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Loyall, B., Bates, J.: Personality Rich Believable Agents that Use Language. In: International Conference on Autonomous Agents (1997)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Loyall, B.: Believable Agents. Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh (1997)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: A Behavior Language: Joint Action and Behavioral Idioms. In: Prendinger, H., Ishizuka, M. (eds.) Life-like Characters. Tools, Affective Functions and Applications. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Elliot, C., Rickel, J., Lester, J.: Lifelike Pedagogical Agents and Affective Computing: An Exploratory Synthesis. Artificial Intelligence Today, 195–211 (1999)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Andre, E., Martin, K., Gebhard, P., Allen, S., Rist, T.: Exploiting Models of Personality and Emotions to Control the Behavior of Animated Interactive Agents. In: Agents 2000 Workshop (2000)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Perlin, K.: Building Virtual Actors Who Can Really Act. In: Balet, O., Subsol, G., Torguet, P. (eds.) ICVS 2003. LNCS, vol. 2897, pp. 127–134. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perlin, K.: Better acting in computer games: the use of procedural methods. Computers and Graphics 26 (2002)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Davies, E.: Beyond Dance: Laban’s Legacy of Movement Analysis. Routledge (2006)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marsella, S., Carnicke, S., Gratch, J., Okhmatovskaia, A., Rizzo, A.: An exploration of Delsarte’s structural acting system. In: 6th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents (2006)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zorn, J.W.: The Essential Delsarte. Scarecrow press, Metuchen (1968)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harger, B.: Entertaining AI: Using Rules from Improvisational Acting to Create Unscripted Emotional Impact. In: Game Developers Conference (2008)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harger, B.: Workshop on Improvisational Acting. In: AAAI Symposium on Intelligent Narrative Technologies (2007)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Johnstone, K.: Impro: Improvisation and the Theatre. Theatre Art Books (1987)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Johnstone, K.: Impro for Storytellers. Theatre Arts Books (1999)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stanislavski: An Actor Prepares. Theatre Arts Books, New York (1936)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stanislavski: Building a Character. Theatre Arts Books, New York (1949)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magy Seif El-Nasr
    • 1
  • Huaxin Wei
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Interactive Arts and TechnologySimon Fraser UniversitySurreyCanada

Personalised recommendations