Strengthening QIM-Based Watermarking by Non-uniform Discrete Cosine Transform

  • Xianfeng Zhao
  • Bingbing Xia
  • Yi Deng
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5284)


Being extremely precise and at a low loss of perceptual quality, the attacks of value modification and optimized noise reduction still threaten the watermarking based on quantization index modulation (QIM). To resist them, the paper constructs a non-uniform discrete cosine transform (NDCT), and brings out an NDCT-QIM watermarking scheme, which embeds a watermark in a private NDCT domain with the parameters of NDCT as a secret key. The technique blinds the value modification by dispersing the attacking signal and changing its energy in the embedded domain. Because of the variable power spectrum of a watermark, the noise reduction becomes non-optimal. Some other advantages, including the ease of embedding, computational simplicity, etc., can also be acquired or maintained by the use of NDCT.


Discrete Cosine Transform Watermark Scheme Power Spectrum Density Watermark Extraction Audio Watermark 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xianfeng Zhao
    • 1
  • Bingbing Xia
    • 1
  • Yi Deng
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Information SecurityInstitute of Software, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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