Paraconsistent Logic Programs with Four-Valued Rough Sets

  • Jan Małuszyński
  • Andrzej Szałas
  • Aida Vitória
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5306)


This paper presents a language for defining four-valued rough sets and to reason about them. Our framework brings together two major fields: rough sets and paraconsistent logic programming. On the one hand it provides a paraconsistent approach, based on four-valued rough sets, for integrating knowledge from different sources and reasoning in the presence of inconsistencies. On the other hand, it also caters for a specific type of uncertainty that originates from the fact that an agent may perceive different objects of the universe as being indiscernible. This paper extends the ideas presented in [9]. Our language allows the user to define similarity relations and use the approximations induced by them in the definition of other four-valued sets. A positive aspect is that it allows users to tune the level of uncertainty or the source of uncertainty that best suits applications.


Logic Programming Boundary Case Paraconsistent Logic Ground Instance Rule Language 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Małuszyński
    • 1
  • Andrzej Szałas
    • 2
  • Aida Vitória
    • 3
  1. 1.The College of Economics and Computer ScienceOlsztynPoland
  2. 2.Institute of InformaticsWarsaw UniversityWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Department of Science and TechnologyLinköping UniversityNorrköpingSweden

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