An Experimental Approach to Online Opponent Modeling in Texas Hold’em Poker

  • Dinis Felix
  • Luís Paulo Reis
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5249)


The game of Poker is an excellent test bed for studying opponent modeling methodologies applied to non-deterministic games with incomplete information. The most known Poker variant, Texas Hold’em Poker, combines simple rules with a huge amount of possible playing strategies. This paper is focused on developing algorithms for performing simple online opponent modeling in Texas Hold’em. The opponent modeling approach developed enables to select the best strategy to play against each given opponent. Several autonomous agents were developed in order to simulate typical Poker player’s behavior and one other agent, was developed capable of using simple opponent modeling techniques in order to select the best playing strategy against each of the other opponents. Results achieved in realistic experiments using eight distinct poker playing agents showed the usefulness of the approach. The observer agent developed is clearly capable of outperforming all its counterparts in all the experiments performed.


Opponent Modeling Texas Hold’em Poker Autonomous Agents 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dinis Felix
    • 1
  • Luís Paulo Reis
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.FEUP - Faculty of Engineering of the University of PortoPortugal
  2. 2.LIACC – Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science Lab.University of PortoPortugal

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