Virtual Archaeology – New Methods of Image-Based 3D Modeling

  • Armin Gruen
Part of the Natural Science in Archaeology book series (ARCHAEOLOGY)


The latest developments in sensors and data processing technology have strongly influenced many disciplines and have led in many cases to completely novel ways as to how the respective work is conducted, with new possibilities for improved data acquisition, handling, and analysis. Archaeology and cultural heritage are definitely among those fields that have drawn many advantages from this situation. Advanced 3D modeling of landscapes, sites, single architectures, statues, findings, and artifacts have given the experts in the field and office new tools in their hands for better analysis and interpretation of processes, developments, and relations.

This chapter, after a brief review of currently available sensor technology and an introduction into the photogrammetric data acquisition and processing procedures, shows how this technology works and what kind of products can be generated. We touch upon the use of satellite, aerial, and terrestrial images, but also address laser scanning and structured light systems. The use of different imaging sensors in the case of the recording of large sites is shown, presenting results from our Bamiyan, Afghanistan project. With our project Tucume, Peru, we demonstrate how we can go back in time with image-based techniques. With different examples of terrestrial applications we indicate the wide variety of available sensors.


Point Cloud Cultural Heritage Digital Surface Model Cultural Heritage Site Cultural Heritage Object 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Armin Gruen
    • 1
  1. 1.ETH Hönggerberg HIL D 43.2ETH Zurich, Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry8093 ZurichSwitzerland

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