User Requirements for Location-Based Services to Support Hiking Activities

  • Annu-Maaria Nivala
  • Tiina Sarjakoski
  • Katri Laakso
  • Joonas Itäranta
  • Pyry Kettunen
Part of the Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography book series (LNGC)


Location-based services (LBS) are gaining popularity and being adapted to new domains. The aim of this study was to identify user requirements for location-based information and services to support outdoor hiking activities. Two issues were emphasized in the study: possible changes occurring during a hike, and community and content needs of the hikers. Three usability engineering methods (questionnaires, empathy probes and focus-group discussions) were used to identify the potential users and their tasks during a hike. Approximately 100 specifi c user requirements for development of future location-based services were recognized, from which nine major themes were identifi ed: planning a hike, additional information on the hiking area, ‘I am here’ services, location of other hikers, changing conditions, emergency situations, saving experiences, sharing experiences, and integrated and adaptive services for hiking purposes. This paper describes the test set-up to identify user requirements and discusses the critical requirements from the hiking viewpoint. Fulfi lling these requirements enables the development of improved applications, services and devices for outdoor activities.


user requirement study location-based information mobile device outdoor activity 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annu-Maaria Nivala
    • 1
  • Tiina Sarjakoski
    • 1
  • Katri Laakso
    • 2
  • Joonas Itäranta
    • 3
  • Pyry Kettunen
    • 1
  1. 1.Geoinformatics and CartographyFinnish Geodetic InstituteMasalaFinland
  2. 2.Devices R$DNokia CorporationTampereFinland
  3. 3.Nokia Research CenterNokia CorporationTampereFinland

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