Conflict Mediation and the ICC: Challenges and Options for Pursuing Peace with Justice at the Regional Level

  • Chandra Lekha Sriram

Whilst accountability and mediation processes are largely state-focused, many conflicts and attendant human rights violations are transboundary and even regionalized. This creates difficulties for traditional political and legal mandates tied largely to territorial states. As a result broader dynamics may be missed and state-focused solutions may end up neither addressing the true underpinnings of conflict or the human rights violations. This dilemma may pose a bigger challenge to mediation and accountability than the straight justice/peace tension, making holistic peace and justice even more elusive. What are the challenges at regional level in contemporary practice? What is the range of options in this context that mediators may put to the parties? Are they the same as the range in domestic processes, such as criminal accountability, truth and reconciliation processes, traditional justice, vetting, limited amnesties, processes with pardons, and if so how might they be modified to suit the context?


International Criminal Court Rome Statute Transitional Justice Peace Process Universal Jurisdiction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bekou O, Shah S (2006) Realising the potential of the International Criminal Court: the African experience. Hum Rights Law Rev 6(3):499–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bell C (2003) Peace agreements and human rights. OUP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. Berat L (1995) South Africa: negotiating change? In: Roht-Arriaza N (ed) Impunity and human rights in international law and practice. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Broomhall B (2004) International justice and the International Criminal Court: between sovereignty and the rule of law. OUP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Centre for Conflict Resolution (2006) United Nations Mediation Experience in Africa, Workshop reportGoogle Scholar
  6. Clapham A (2006) Human rights obligations of non-state actors. OUP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. DFID (2001) The causes of conflict in Africa: consultation document. UK Department for International Development. conflict-africa.pdf#search= %22dfid% 20causes%20of%20conflict%20in%20africa%22
  8. Doyle M (2006) Africa's mixed amnesty precedents. 5148226.stm
  9. Grainger S (2007) How to punish Uganda rebels. 7081560.stm
  10. Hannum H (2006) Human rights and conflict resolution: the role of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in UN peacemaking and peacebuilding. Human Rights Quarterly 28(1)Google Scholar
  11. Hartzell C, Hoddie M, Rothchild D (2001) Stabilizing the peace after civil war: an investigation of some key variables. Int Organ 55:183–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayner P (2000) Unspeakable truths: confronting state terror and atrocity. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoddie M, Hartzell C (2003) Civil war settlements and the implementation of military power-sharing arrangements. Journal of Peace Research 40(3):303–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoffman PL (2005) Corporate accountability under the U.S. Alien Tort Claims Act. In: Ballentine K, Nitzschke H (eds) Profiting from peace: managing the resource dimensions of civil war. Lynne Rienner, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  15. Hohe T, Nixon R (2003) Reconciling justice: ‘traditional’ law and state judiciary in East Timor. United States Institute for Peace Final ReportGoogle Scholar
  16. Human Rights Watch (2004) Human rights and armed conflict.
  17. International Crisis Group (2007) Northern Uganda peace process: the need to maintain momentum. Africa Briefing No. 46 (14 September 2007).http://www.crisisgroup. org/home/index.cfm?id=5078
  18. Lembach D (2007) Close encounters in the third dimension: the regional effects of state failure. INEF Report 87/2007. Institute for Development and PeaceGoogle Scholar
  19. Lutz E, Babbitt EF, Hannum H (2003) Human rights and conflict resolution from the practitioners' perspectives. Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 27(1). chrcr/pdf/Lutz4.pdf
  20. Mani R (2002) Beyond retribution: seeking justice in the shadows of war. Polity, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  21. Meisenberg SM (2004) Legality of amnesties in international humanitarian law: the Lomé amnesty decision of the special court for Sierra Leone. Int Rev Red Cross 856Google Scholar
  22. Parlevliet M (2002) Bridging the divide. Exploring the relationship between human rights and conflict management. Track Two (11)1. 1/bridging.html
  23. Pugh M, Cooper N (2004) War economies in a regional context: challenges of transformation. Lynne Rienner, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  24. Putnam T (2002) Human rights and sustainable peace. In: Stedman SJ, Rothchild D, Cousens E (eds) Ending civil wars. The implementation of peace agreements. Lynne Rienner, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  25. Reydams L (2004) Universal jurisdiction: international and municipal legal perspectives. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  26. Roeder P, Rothchild D (eds) (2005) Sustainable peace: power and democracy after civil wars. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  27. Roht-Arriaza N (ed.) (1995) Impunity and human rights in international law and practice. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  28. Rotberg RI, Thompson D (eds) (2000) Truth vs. justice: the morality of truth commissions. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  29. Sadat LN (2002) The international criminal court and the transformation of international law: justice for the new millennium. Transnational Publishers, ArdsleyGoogle Scholar
  30. Sadat LN (2004) Universal jurisdiction, national amnesties, and truth commissions: reconciling the irreconcilable. In: Macedo S (ed) Universal jurisdiction: national courts and the prosecution of serious crimes under international law. University of Pennsylvania Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  31. Sadat LN (2006) Exile, amnesty, and international law. Notre Dame Law Rev 81:970Google Scholar
  32. Sarkin J (2001) The tension between justice and reconciliation in Rwanda: politics, human rights, due process and the role of the gacaca courts in dealing with the genocide. J Afr Law 45:143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schabas WA (2005) War economies, economic actors, and international criminal law. In: Ballentine K, Nitzschke H (eds) Profiting from peace: managing the resource dimensions of civil war. Lynne Rienner, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  34. Seils P, Wierda M (2006) The international criminal court and conflict mediation. International Center for Transitional Justice Background Paper. www.ictj.orgGoogle Scholar
  35. Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2004) Final Report, vol. 3b.http://
  36. Sisk TD (1996) Power sharing and international mediation in ethnic conflicts. US Institute of Peace, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  37. Smith KE (1995) Decommunization after the ‘velvet revolutions’ in East Central Europe. In: Roht-Arriaza (ed) Impunity and human rights in international law and practice. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  38. Sriram CL (2004a) Confronting past human rights violations: justice v. peace in times of transition. Frank Cass, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Sriram CL (2004b) Dynamics of conflict in Central America. In: Sriram CL, Nielsen Z (eds) (2004) Exploring subregional conflict: opportunities for conflict prevention. Lynne Rienner, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  40. Sriram CL (2005) Globalizing justice for mass atrocities: a revolution in accountability. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Sriram CL (2007a) The ICC Africa experiment: Darfur, Northern Uganda, and the DRC. Paper prepared for CCR workshop on “Peace versus Justice? Truth and Reconciliation Commissions and War Crimes Tribunals in Africa. Cape Town, 17–18 May 2007Google Scholar
  42. Sriram CL (2007b) China, Human Rights, and the Sudan. 30 January 2007.
  43. Sriram CL (2008a) Peace as governance: power-sharing, armed groups, and contemporary peace negotiations. Palgrave, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. Sriram CL (2008b) Achieving accountability for non-state armed groups: use of domestic mechanisms for international crimes. In: Policzer P, Capie D (eds) After leviathan: restraining violence by non-state armed groups. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia (forthcoming)Google Scholar
  45. Sriram CL, Nielsen Z (eds) (2004) Exploring subregional conflict: opportunities for conflict prevention. Lynne Rienner, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  46. Sriram CL, Ross A (2006) Catch-22 in Uganda: The LRA, the ICC, and the peace process.
  47. Sriram CL, Ross A (2007) Geographies of crime and justice: contemporary transitional justice and the creation of ‘zones of impunity’. Int J Transitional Justice 1:45–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stedman SJ (1997) Spoiler problems in peace processes. Int Security 22:5–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Teitel RG (2000) Transitional justice. OUP, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. UNCHR (2006) Vetting: an operational framework. UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. en.pdf
  51. Väyrynen R (1984) Regional conflict formations: an intractable problem of international relations. J Peace Res 21:337–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wallensteen P, Sollenberg M (1998) Armed conflict and regional conflict complexes, 1989–97. J Peace Res 35:621–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Walter BF (2002) Committing to peace: the successful settlement of civil wars. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  54. Yoch JM Jr (2006) Liberia group pushing for national war crimes court. edu/paperchase/2006/04/liberia-group-pushing-for-national-war.php

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chandra Lekha Sriram
    • 1
  1. 1.University of East London School of Law, Duncan HouseLondon E15 2JBUK

Personalised recommendations