Creative Sketches Production in Digital Design: A User-Centered Evaluation of a 3D Digital Environment

  • Anaïs Mayeur
  • Françoise Darses
  • Pierre Leclercq
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5166)


With their tedious interfaces that impose an encoding sternness, the existing computer assisted architectural design tools (CAAD) too often restrict users’ creativity. Paper and pencil are then privileged in the first design stages. In response to this restriction, we have developed a sketch interface, based on an electronic pen and a LCD tablet, which allows the designer to develop ideas and manipulate drawings. This paper describes our observations of five professional architects working with these software and hardware devices. Our analyses are based on session’s temporal execution, on graphic production types and on drawing area management. They conclude that the proposed digital solution is compatible with the designers’ expectations and really support creative exploration.


Sketching tools for architecture volumetric representation spatial cognition externalization 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anderson, R.J., Hoyer, C., Wolfman, S.A., Anderson, R.: A Study of Digital Ink in Lecture Presentation. In: Proceedings of the CHI 2004 conference on Human factors interaction (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blessing, L.: Engineering design and artificial intelligence: a promising marriage. In: Cross, N., Dorst, K., Roozenburg, N. (eds.) Research in design thinking, pp. 177–212. Delft University Press, Delft, Netherlands (1992)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chang, C.K., Wu, W.Y.: Designing a Novel Input Method for an Asynchronous Forum on Pocket PCs. In: HCI International 2005. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clegg, P., Bruciatelli, L., Domingos, F., Jones, R.R., De Donatis, M., Wilson, R.W.: Digital geological mapping with tablet PC and PDA: A comparison. Computers & Geosciences 32(10), 1682–1698 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Donatis, M., Bruciatelli, L.: Map it: The Gis software for field mapping with tablet PC. Computers & Geosciences 32(5), 673–680 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Elliott, A., Hearst, M.: A Comparison of the Affordances of a Digital Desk and Tablet for Architectural Image Use Tasks. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 56(2), 173–197 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ericsson, K.A., Simon, H.A.: Protocol analysis: verbal reports as data. MIT Press, Cambridge (1984)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Estevez, D.: Dessin d’architecture et infographie, L’évolution contemporaine des pratiques graphiques. Edition du CNRS, Paris (2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jonson, B.: Design ideation: the conceptual sketch in the digital age. Design studies 26, 613–624 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Juchmes, R., Leclercq, P., Azar, S.: A Multi-Agent System for the Interpretation of Architectural Sketches. Computers and Graphics Journal 29(6), 905–915 (2005) (Special issue)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leclercq, P., Juchmes, R.: The Absent Interface in Design Engineering. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, AIEDAM 16(5), 219–227 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leclercq, P.: Invisible Sketch Interface in Architectural Engineering. In: Lladós, J., Kwon, Y.-B. (eds.) GREC 2003. LNCS, vol. 3088, pp. 353–363. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leclercq, P.: Interpretative tool for architectural sketches. In: 1st International Roundtable Conference on Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design: « Computational and cognitive approaches ». MIT, Cambridge (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leclercq, P.: Programme EsQUIsE. In: Acquisition et interprétation de croquis d’architecture, La lettre de l’IA, n°123, 6e Journées Internationales Interfaces 1997, Man-machine interaction, Montpellier, France, pp. 159–162 (1997)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lipson, H., Shpitalni, M.: Conceptual design and analysis by sketching. Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Design and Manufacturing (AIDAM) 14, 391–401 (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    McCall, R., Ekaterini, V., Zabel, J.: Conceptual design as hypersketching. In: Proceedings of CAAD Futures 2001. Kluwers, Dordrecht (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Molina, A.: European collaboration and the shaping of an interactive multimedia tablet. Technology in Society 21(1), 19–36 (1999)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nielsen, J.: Designing Web Usability. New Riders Publishing (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oomitka, K., Naito, A., Nakagawa, M.: Idea Memo PDA in Scalable Handwriting Interfaces. In: Smith, M.J., Salvendy, G., Koubek, R.J. (eds.) Design of Computing Systems: Social and Ergonomic Considerations, pp. 455–458. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1997)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Read, J.C.: The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. In: Proceedings of HCI 2005, London, pp. 19–35 (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rodriguez, N.J., Borgues, J.A., Acosta, N.: A Study of Text and Numeric Input Modalities on PDAs. In: HCI International 2005. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, July 22-27 (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Safin, S., Boulanger, C., Leclercq, P.: A Virtual Desktop for an Augmented Design Process. In: Fischer, X., Coutellier, D. (eds.) Proceedings of Virtual Concept Conference 2005, Research in Interactive Design. Springer, Berlin (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Scrivener, S.A.R., Ball, L.J., Tseng, W.: Uncertainty and sketching behaviour. Design Studies 21(5), 465–481 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shilit, B.N., Price, M.N., Golovchinsky, G.: Digital library information appliances. In: Proceedings Digital Libraries 1998, Pittsburgh, pp. 217–225 (1998)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang, J., Jiang, C.: Malleable Paper: A User Interface for Reading and Browsing. In: Stephanidis, C., Jacko, J. (eds.) Human-Computer Interaction: Theory and Practice (Part II), pp. 791–795. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anaïs Mayeur
    • 1
  • Françoise Darses
    • 2
  • Pierre Leclercq
    • 3
  1. 1.LCPC, 58, Bd Lefebvre, 75015 Paris & Ergonomics Laboratory - Paris Descartes UniversityParisFrance
  2. 2.Ergonomics Laboratory – CNAMParisFrance
  3. 3.Lucid Group - University of LiègeLiègeBelgium

Personalised recommendations