Improving 3D Selection in VEs through Expanding Targets and Forced Disocclusion

  • Ferran Argelaguet
  • Carlos Andujar
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5166)


In this paper we explore the extension of 2D pointing facilitation techniques to 3D object selection. We discuss what problems must be faced when adapting such techniques to 3D interaction on VR applications, and we propose two strategies to adapt the expanding targets approach to the 3D realm, either by dynamically scaling potential targets or by using depth-sorting to guarantee that potential targets appear completely unoccluded. We also present three experiments to evaluate both strategies in 3D selection tasks with multiple targets at varying densities. Our user studies show promising results of 3D expanding targets in terms of error rates and, most importantly, user acceptance.


Screen Projection Dynamic Scaling Regular Layout Focus Change Focus Object 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bowman, D., Hodges, L.: An evaluation of techniques for grabbing and manipulating remote objects in immersive virtual environments. In: I3D 1997: Proceedings of the 1997 ACM Symposium on Interactive 3D graphics, pp. 35–38 (1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Balakrishnan, R.: “beating” fitts’ law: Virtual enhancements for pointing facilitation. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 61(6), 857–874 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bowman, D.A., Kruijff, E., LaViola, J.J., Poupyrev, I.: 3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice. Addison Wesley, Reading (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Steed, A.: Towards a general model for selection in virtual environments. In: IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lindeman, R., Sibert, J., Hahn, J.: Towards usable VR: an empirical study of user interfaces for immersive virtual environments. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 64–71 (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schmalstieg, D., Encarnacao, M., Szalavri, Z.: Using transparent props for interaction with the virtual table. In: Proceedings of the 1999 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics, pp. 147–153 (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Meyer, D., Abrams, R., Kornblum, S., Wright, C., Smith, J.: Optimality in human motor performance: ideal control of rapid aimed movements. Psychological Review 95(3), 340–370 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dachselt, R., Hübner, A.: Three-dimensional menus: A survey and taxonomy. Computers and Graphics 31(1) (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Steinicke, F., Ropinski, T., Hinrichs, K.: Object selection in virtual environments with an improved virtual pointer metaphor. In: International Conference on Computer Vision and Graphics, ICCVG 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    de Haan, G., Koutek, M., Post, F.: IntenSelect: Using Dynamic Object Rating for Assisting 3D Object Selection. In: EG workshop on VEs (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhai, S., Buxton, W., Milgram, P.: The silk cursor: investigating transparency for 3d target acquisition. In: CHI 1994: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 459–464 (1994)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vanacken, L., Grossman, T., Coninx, K.: Exploring the effects of environment density and target visibility on object selection in 3d virtual environments. In: IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces, 2007. 3DUI 2007 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Forsberg, A., Herndon, K., Zeleznik, R.: Aperture based selection for immersive virtual environments. In: User interface software and technology, pp. 95–96 (1996)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    McGuffin, M., Balakrishnan, R.: Acquisition of expanding targets. In: CHI 2002: Proc. SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, pp. 57–64 (2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Frees, S., Kessler, D.: Precise and rapid interaction through scaled manipulation in immersive virtual environments. In: Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality, pp. 99–106 (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Andujar, C., Argelaguet, F.: Anisomorphic ray-casting manipulation for interacting with 2d guis. Computer Graphics 31(1), 15–25 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bowman, D., Wingrave, C., Campbell, J., Ly, V.: Using pinch gloves for both natural and abstract interaction techniques in virtual environments. In: HCI International, pp. 629–633 (2001)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carpendale, M., Cowperthwaite, D., Fracchia, F.: Extending distortion viewing from 2d to 3d. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 17(4) (1997)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Raab, A., Rüger, M.: 3d-zoom: Interactive visualisation of structures and relations in complex graphics. In: 3D Image Analysis and Synthesis, pp. 125–132 (1996)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Germer, T., Götzelmann, T., Spindler, M., Strothotte, T.: Springlens - distributed nonlinear magnifications. Eurographics Short Papers (2006)Google Scholar
  21. 21.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ferran Argelaguet
    • 1
  • Carlos Andujar
    • 1
  1. 1.MOVING GroupUniversitat Politècnica de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations