Complications Related to Anterolateral Approaches

  • Luca DenaroEmail author
  • Umile Giuseppe Longo
  • Rocco Papalia
  • Vincenzo Denaro

The low and high retropharyngeal and precarotid prest-ernocleidomastoid approaches to the cervical spine allow one to expose all the levels of the cervical spine, from the basis of the skull to the upper thoracic levels [1].

The low presternocleidomastoid approach is the most common direct approach to the middle and low cervical spine. It was first described to expose the proximal esophagus, and successively used in cervical spine surgery [2, 3].

The high presternocleidomastoid approach, on the other hand, allows one to easily expose the high cervical spine all the way up to clivus. It can be considered as a proximal extension of the classical presterno-cleidomastoid approach [3–5].


Cervical Spine Internal Carotid Artery Facial Nerve Vertebral Artery Thoracic Duct 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luca Denaro
    • 1
    Email author
  • Umile Giuseppe Longo
    • 2
  • Rocco Papalia
    • 3
  • Vincenzo Denaro
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeuroscienceUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma SurgeryCampus Bio-Medico UniversityRomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma SurgeryCampus Bio-Medico UniversityRomeItaly
  4. 4.Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma SurgeryCampus Bio-Medico UniversityRomeItaly

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