Complications Related to Graft

  • Umile Giuseppe LongoEmail author
  • Luca Denaro
  • Nicola Maffulli
  • Vincenzo Denaro

Arthrodesis of the spine is a commonly employed procedure for several cervical spinal pathologies, including deformity, instability, trauma, and degenerative diseases [1–5]. Failure of fusion is always a therapeutic challenge. Bone graft is used in cervical spine surgery to achieve several goals: to enhance bone healing reducing the risk of nonunion [6], to reconstruct bony defects, to restore the load-bearing capacity of the cervical spine, and, when adequately shaped, to restore the physiological lordosis of the cervical spine [7, 8].

Integration of the graft depends on multiple factors. The presence of any detrimental condition may diminish the osteogenic potential of the fusion site, and contribute to the development of a nonunion. Numerous systemic risk factors may inhibit bone formation, including use of tobacco or other drugs, advanced age of the patient, and metabolic comorbidities (i.e., diabetes or osteoporosis) [9] (see Chap. 1). Structural instability, improper preparation of the host bone, and poor vascularity are other factors that may contribute to unsuccessful arthrodesis of the spine [5].


Bone Graft Iliac Crest Anterior Superior Iliac Spine Bone Graft Substitute Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umile Giuseppe Longo
    • 2
    Email author
  • Luca Denaro
    • 1
  • Nicola Maffulli
    • 3
  • Vincenzo Denaro
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeuroscienceUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly
  2. 2.Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and DentistryMile End HospitalLondonEngland
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma SurgeryCampus Bio-Medico UniversityRomeItaly

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