In this chapter a detailed description of circulation in the Baltic Sea is given. In Section 5.1 the general theory of ocean dynamics in the Baltic Sea is discussed along with some important special cases. The conservation laws for heat and salt were treated in Chapter 4, and here the focus is on purely dynamic questions. In Section 5.2, general circulation is introduced using different examples based on observations. Section 5.3, “Deepwater circulation and ventilation”, gives an overview of the internal water cycle and internal mesoscale dynamics and mixing. Section 5.4 gives a detailed view of the Major Baltic Inflow—one of the key features in Baltic Sea physics. Section 5.5 gives a brief summary on how three-dimensional numerical models can be used as tools to investigate circulation physics. The tidal phenomenon is not discussed here but will follow in Chapter 6.
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