Water, salt, and heat budgets

Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)


The temperature and salinity fields of the Baltic Sea were presented in Chapter 3, and in this chapter we shall examine the water, salt, and heat budgets. These budgets guide the evolution of the physical conditions in the Baltic Sea. The water budget determines the flushing of Baltic Sea watermasses, the salinity level is externally forced by the exchange of water between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, and the heat budget is coupled with atmospheric conditions. Budget questions are among the key objectives of the BALTEX research program (Omstedt et al., 2004). Sections 4.1–4.3 discuss the budget based on observational material, and Sections 4.4–4.5 deal with modeling approaches using one-dimensional models and box models.


Physical Condition Research Program Atmospheric Condition Salinity Level Water Budget 
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© Praxis Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK 2009

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