Resilience to Dropping Nodes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Link-State Routing

  • Ignacy Gawędzki
  • Khaldoun Al Agha
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4982)


Currently emerging standard routing protocols for MANETs do not perform well in presence of malicious nodes that intentionally drop data traffic but otherwise behave correctly with respect to control messages of the routing protocol. In this paper, we address the problem of coping with the presence of such nodes in networks that use a link-state routing protocol. The solution, based on the verification of the principle of flow conservation, is purely protocolar and does not rely on any specific underlying OSI layer 1 or 2 technical feature. In addition, it is well suited for integration into existing link-state routing protocols for ad hoc networks, by using existing periodic control messages and by not requiring any clock synchronization between the nodes. The method, once implemented in an actual routing protocol, proves to increase the ratio of successfully delivered data packets significantly.


ad hoc networks link-state routing security resilience 


  1. 1.
    Avramopoulos, I., Kobayashi, H., Wang, R., Krishnamurthy, A.: Highly secure and efficient routing. In: IEEE (ed.) INFOCOM 2004. Twenty-third AnnualJoint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, March 2004, vol. 1, pp. 208–220. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Awerbuch, B., Holmer, D., Nita-Rotaru, C., Rubens, H.: An on-demand secure routing protocol resilient to byzantine failures. In: WiSE 2002: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM workshop on Wireless security, pp. 21–30. ACM Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bradley, K.A., Cheung, S., Puketza, N., Mukherjee, B., Olsson, R.A.: Detecting disruptive routers: a distributed network monitoring approach. Network, IEEE 12(5), 50–60 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buttyán, L., Hubaux, J.-P.: Stimulating cooperation in self-organizing mobile ad hoc networks. MONET 8(5), 579–592 (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clausen, T., Jacquet, P.: Optimized link state routing (OLSR) protocol. In: RFC 3626, IETF (October 2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fourati, A., Agha, K.A.: A shared secret-based algorithm for securing the OLSR routing protocol. Telecommunication Systems 31(2–3), 213–226 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hu, Y.-C., Perrig, A., Johnson, D.B.: Ariadne: a secure on-demand routing protocol for ad hoc networks. In: MobiCom 2002: Proceedings of the 8th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking, pp. 12–23. ACM Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hughes, J.R., Aura, T., Bishop, M.: Using conservation of flow as a security mechanism in network protocols. In: IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 132–141 (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Johnson, D.B., Maltz, D.A., Hu, Y.-C.: The dynamic source routing protocol (DSR) for mobile ad hoc networks for IPv4. RFC 4728, IETF (February 2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Just, M., Kranakis, E., Wan, T.: Resisting malicious packet dropping in wireless ad hoc networks. In: Pierre, S., Barbeau, M., Kranakis, E. (eds.) ADHOC-NOW 2003. LNCS, vol. 2865, pp. 151–163. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mahajan, R., Rodrig, M., Wetherall, D., Zahorjan, J.: Sustaining cooperation in multi-hop wireless networks. In: 2nd Symposium on Networked System Design and Implementation, Boston, MA, USA (May 2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marti, S., Giuli, T.J., Lai, K., Baker, M.: Mitigating routing misbehavior in mobile ad hoc networks. In: MobiCom 2000: Proceedings of the 6th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking, pp. 255–265. ACM Press, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E., Das, S.: Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing. RFC 3561, IETF (July 2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Raffo, D., Adjih, C., Clausen, T., Mühlethaler, P.: An advanced signature system for olsr. In: SASN 2004: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM workshop on Security of ad hoc and sensor networks, pp. 10–16. ACM Press, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhong, S., Chen, J., Yang, Y.R.: Sprite: A simple, cheat-proof, credit-based system for mobile ad-hoc networks. In: INFOCOM (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ignacy Gawędzki
    • 1
  • Khaldoun Al Agha
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Recherche en InformatiqueUniversité Paris-Sud 11, CNRSOrsayFrance

Personalised recommendations