Advertisement

Merkel Cell Carcinoma

  • Martina UlrichEmail author
  • Jean Kanitakis
Chapter
  • 854 Downloads

Core Messages

  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), also known as primary neuroendocrine skin carcinoma or Merkel cell tumor, is a cutaneous malignancy of neuroendocrine origin, first described by Toker in 1972. Although MCC is rare, it has been shown to have a higher mortality rate than malignant melanoma with a 5-year disease-specific survival rate of 64% [1]. During the past two decades, the incidence of MCC reportedly increased threefold (from 0.15/100,000 in 1986 to 0.44/100,000 in 2001), representing an annual percentage incidence increase of 8% [2]. The increasing incidence, the aggressive behavior of this malignancy, the unknown etio-pathogenesis, and the paucity of options for the treatment of advanced disease call for the need of optimal, standardized management of this neoplasm.

Keywords

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Small Cell Lung Cancer Merkel Cell Carcinoma Wide Local Excision Isolate Limb Perfusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    1. Allen PJ, Bowne WB, Jaques DP et al (2005) Merkel cell carcinoma: prognosis and treatment of patients from a single institution. J Clin Oncol 23:2300–2309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    2. Hodgson NC (2005) Merkel cell carcinoma: changing incidence trends. J Surg Oncol 89:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    3. Gupta SG, Wang LC, Penas PF et al (2006) Sentinel lymph node biopsy for evaluation and treatment of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol 142:685–6904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miller R, Rabkin C (1998) Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma: etiological similarities and differences. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8:153–158Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lunder EJ, Stern RS (1998) Merkel cell carcinoma in patients treated with methoxsalen and ultraviolet A radiation. N Engl J Med 339:1247–1248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buell JF, Trofe J, Hanaway MJ et al (2002) Immuno-suppression and Merkel cell cancer. Transplant Proc 34:1780–1781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miller SJ, Alam M, Andersen J et al (2006) Merkel cell carcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 4:704–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bordea C, Wojnarowska F, Millard P et al (2004) Skin cancer in renal-transplant recipients occur more frequently than previously recognized in a temperate climate. Transplantation 77:574–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kanitakis J, Euvrard S, Chouvet B et al (2006) Merkel cell carcinoma in organ-transplant recipients: report of two cases with unusual histological features and literature review. J Cutan Pathol 33:686–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Engels EA, Frisch M, Goedert JJ et al (2002) Merkel cell carcinoma and HIV infection. Lancet 359:497–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y et al (2008) Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. Science 319(5866):1096–1100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kassem A, Schöpflin A, Diaz C et al (2008) Frequent detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinomas and identification of a unique deletion in the VP1 gene. Cancer Res 68(13):5009–5013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hausschild A, Garbe C (1998) Cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (Merkel cell carcinoma). Quality Assurance Committee of the German Society of Dermatology and the Professional Organization of German Dermatologists e. V. Hautarzt 48(suppl 1):S27–29Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldberg S, Neifeld J, Frable W (2007) Prognostic value of tumor thickness in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 95:618–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heath ML, Nghiem P (2007) Merkel cell carcinoma: if no Breslow, then what?. J Surg Oncol 95:614–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bichakjian CK, Lowe L, Lao CD et al (2007) Merkel cell carcinoma: critical review with guidelines for multidisci-plinary management. Cancer 110:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Senchenkov A, Barnes SA, Moran SL (2007) Predictors of survival and recurrence in the surgical treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma of the extremities. J Surg Oncol 95:229–23416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Garneski KM, Nghiem P (2007) Merkel cell carcinoma adjuvant therapy: current data support radiation but no chemotherapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 57:166–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lewis K, Weinstock M, Weaver A et al (2006) Adjuvant local irradiation for Merkel cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol 142:693–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clark J, Veness M, Gilbert R et al (2007) Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: is adjuvant radiotherapy necessary?. Head Neck 29:249–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mojica P, Smith D, Ellenhorn J (2007) Adjuvant radiation therapy is associated with improved survival in Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. J Clin Oncol 25:1043–1047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Poulsen MG, Rischin D, Porter I et al (2006) Does chemotherapy improve survival in high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin?. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 64:114–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hata Y, Matsuka K, Ito O et al (1997) Two cases of Merkel cell carcinoma cured by intratumor injection of human tumor necrosis factor. Plast Reconstr Surg 99:547–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Durand J, Weiller C, Richard M et al (1991) Treatment of Merkel cell tumor with interferon —alpha-2b. Br J Dermatol 124:509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Olieman A, Liénard D, Eggermont A et al (1999) Hyper-thermic isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor a, interferon gamma, and melphalan for locally advanced non-melanoma skin tumors of the extremities. Arch Surg 134:303–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jabbour J, Cumming R, Scolyer RA et al (2007) Merkel cell carcinoma: assessing the effect of wide local excision, lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy on recurrence and survival in early stage disease- results from a review of 82 consecutive cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2004. Ann Surg Oncol 14:1943–1952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vesely M, Murray D, Neligan P et al (2007) Complete spontaneous regression in Merkel cell carcinoma. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 61:165–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik für Dermatologie, Allergologie und VenerologieCharité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, HauttumorzentrumBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations