Skin Cancer Prevention

  • Véronique del Marmol
  • Veronique Bataille
  • Myrto-Georgia Trakatelli
  • Claas Ulrich

Core Messages

Primary prevention
  • Skin Cancer is one of the most preventable cancers and there is strong evidence that UV radiation is the main environmental factor.

  • The best interventional target for primary prevention is children.

  • Adequate photoprotection may be achieved by wearing protective clothes and by using a broad-spectrum sunscreen.

  • Actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma have shown a direct protective effect on sunscreen use in human beings. More time will be needed to prove the efficiency of the preventive effect on melanoma and basal cell carcinoma.

  • Sunbeds use is a major concern since it has been confirmed a positive association between melanoma and sunbed use.

Secondary prevention
  • Skin cancers are perfect targets for secondary prevention since it is visible on the skin's surface and can be detected at an early, curable stage.

  • Early detection can be enhanced by different educational procedures.

  • Early detection requires skin inspection which can be done by dermatologists, primary care physicians, nurses, patients and their family. The self skin examination's effectiveness in reducing mortality has been demonstrated.

  • High-risk groups for developing melanoma are middle-aged or older men, family members of melanoma patients, lower socio-economic strata of the population, many moles/atypical moles, fair skin and blue/green eyes or blond-red hair.

  • High-risk groups for NMSC are fair skin, longstanding sun exposure, advanced age and immunosuppression.


Skin Cancer Actinic Keratosis Indoor Tanning Ultraviolet Protection Factor Dysplastic Nevus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Glanz K, Halpern A, Sarayia M (2006) Behavorial and community interventions to prevent skin cancer. Arch Dermatol 142:356–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Turrisi R, Hillhouse J, Heavin S, Robinson J, Adam M, Berry J (2004) Examination of the short term efficacy of a parent-based intervention to prevent skin cancer. J Behav Med 27:393–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pagoto S, McChargue D, Fuqua RW (2003) Effects of a multicomponent intervention on motivation and sun protection among Midwestern beachgoers. Health Psychol 22:429–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sarayia M, Balluz L (2007) Sunburn prevalence among adults-United States, 1999, 2003 and 2004. MMWR-CDC 56(21):524–528. Available at Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sarayia M, Glanz K, Briss P, Nichols P, White C, Das D (2003) Preventing skin cancer: findings of the task force on community preventive services on reducing exposure to ultraviolet light. MMWR 52(RR15):1–12Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Banks BA, Silverman RA, Schwartz RH, Tunnessen WW (1992) Attitudes of teenagers towards sun exposure and sunscreen use. Pediatrics 89(1):40–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kyle JW, Hammitt JK, Lim HW, Geller A, Hall Jordan L, Maibach EW, De Fabo E, Wagner MC (2008) Economic evaluation of the US environmental protection agency's Sunwise program: sun protection education of young children. Pediatrics 121(5):1074–1084Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Iammarino NK, Weinberg AD (1985) Cancer prevention in the schools. J Sch Health 55(3):86–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Denman S (1999) Health promoting school in England, a way forward in development. J Public Health Med 21(2):215–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sarayia M, Glanz K, Briss P, White C, Das D, Smith J, Tannor B, Hutchinson A, Wilson K, Gandhi N, Lee N, Rimer B, Coates R, Kerner J, Buffler P, Rochester P (2004) Interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 27(5):422–466Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hewitt M, Denman S, Hayes L, Pearson J, Wallbanks C (2001) Evaluation of “sun-safe”: a health education resource for primary schools. Heatlh Educ Res 16(5):623–633Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boldeman C, Bränström R, Dal H, Kristjansson S, Rodvall Y, Jansson B, Ullén H (2001) Tanning habits and sunburns in a Swedish population age 13–50 years. Eur J Cancer 37(18):2441–2448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Davis KJ, Cokkinides VE, Weinstock MA, O'Connell MC, Wingo PA (2002) Summer sunburn and sun exposure among US youths ages 11 to 18: national prevalence and associated factors. Pediatrics 110(1):27–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vail-Smith K, Felts WM (1993) Sunbathing: college students' knowledge, attitudes and perception of risks. J Am Coll Health 42(1):21–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mahler HI, Kulik JA, Correa A, Gibbons FX, Gerrard M (2005) Effects of UV photographs, photoaging information and use of sunless tanning lotion on sun protection behaviors. Arch Derm 141(3):373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gies HP, Roy CR, Elliott G, Zongly W (1994) Ultraviolet radiation protection factors for clothing. Health Phys 67:131–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Parisi AV, Kimlin MG, Mulheran L, Meldrun LR, Randall C (2000) Field based measurements of personal erythemal ultraviolet exposure through a summer garment. Photodematol Photoimmunol Photomed 16:134–138Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gambichler T, Hatch KL, Avermaete A, Altmeyer P (2002) Influence of wetness on the ultraviolet protection factor UPF of textiles:in vitro and in vivo measurements. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 18(1):29–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gambichler T, Avermaete A, Bader A, Altmeyer P, Hoffmann K (2001) Ultraviolet protection by summer textiles. Ultraviolet transmission measurements verified by determination of the minimal erythema dose with solar-simulated radiation. Br J Dermatol 144(3):484–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hatch KL, Osterwalder U (2006) Garment as solar ultraviolet radiation screening materials. Dermatol Clin 24(1):85–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang SQ, Kopf AW, Marx J, Bogdan A, Polsky D, Bart RS (2001) Reduction of ultraviolet transmission through cotton T shirts fabrics with low ultraviolet protection by various laundering methods and dyeing: clinical implications. J Am Acad Dermatol 44(5):767–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Albert MR, Ostheimer KG (2002) The evolution of current medical and popular attitudes toward ultraviolet light exposure: Part 1. J Am Acad Dermatol 47:930–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Albert MR, Ostheimer KG (2003) The evolution of current medical and popular attitudes toward ultraviolet light exposure: Part 2. J Am Acad Dermatol 48:909–918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Albert MR, Ostheimer KG (2003) The evolution of current medical and popular attitudes toward ultraviolet light exposure: Part 3. J Am Acad Dermatol 49:1096–1106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Urbach FT (2001) The historical aspects of sunscreens. J photochem photobiol B: Biol 64:99–104Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Commission Directive (2005) Council Directive 76/768/ EEC, concerning cosmetic products, for the purposes of adapting Annex VII thereto to technical progressGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Department of health and human services FDA (1999) Sunscreen drug products for over the counter use: final monograph. Fed Regist 64(27):666–693Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Therapeutic Goods Administration (2006) Australian regulatory guidelines for OTC medicines (ARGOM) Accessed 13 Dec 2006
  29. 29.
    Thompson SC, Jolley D, Marks R (1993) Reduction of solar keratoses by regular sunscreen use. N Engl J Med 329(16):1147–1151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lindelof B, Sigurgeirsso B, Gabel H, Stern RS (2000) Incidence in skin cancer in 5356 patients following organ transplantation. Br J Dermatol 143:513–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moloney FJ, Almarzouai E, O'Kelly P, Comlon P, Murphy G (2005) Sunscreen use before and after transplantation and assessment of irsk factors associated with skin cancer development in renal transplant recipients. Arch Dermatol 141:978–982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ulrich C, Degen A, Patel MJ, Stockfleth E (2008) Sunscreens in organ transplant patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 23(8):2712Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dennis LK, Freeman L, Van Beek MJ (2003) sunscreen use and the risk for melanoma: a quantitative review. Ann Intern Med 139:966–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lautenschlager S, Wulf HC, Pittelkow MR (2007) Photoprotection, review. Lancet 370(9586):528–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Autier P, Dore JF, Negrier S, Lienard D, Panizzon R, Lejeune FJ, Guggisberg D, Eggermont AM (1999) Sunscreen use and duration of sun exposure; a double blind, randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:1304–1309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Autier P, Dore JF, Reis AC, Grivegnée A, Ollivaud L, Truchetet F, Chamoun E, Rotmensz L, SEveri G, Cesarini JP (2000) Sunscreen use and intentional exposure to ultraviolet A and B radiation trial using personal dosimeters. Br J Cancer 83(9):1243–1248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dupuy A, Dunant A, Grob JJ (2005) Randomized controlled trial testing the impact of high protection sunscreens on sun exposure behaviour. Arch Dermatol 141:950–956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Diffey BL (2005) Sunscreen and melanoma: the future looks bright. Br J Dermatol 153:378–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    International tanning association. Positive effects of UV light.
  40. 40.
    Cesarini JP (2007) Solaria. In: Ringborg U, Brandberg Y, Breitbart EW, Greinert R (eds) Skin cancer prevention. Informa Healthcare, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hillhouse J, Turrisi Rob, Shields A (2007) Patterns of indoor tanning use. Arch Dermatol 143(12):1530–1535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Westerdahl J, Olsson H, Masback A, Ingvar C, Jonsson N, Brandt L, Jonsson P-E, Moller T (1994) Use of sunbeds or sunlamps and malignant melanoma in southern Sweden. Am J Epidemiol 140(8):691–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hamlet Neil, Kennedy K (2004) Reconnaissance study of sunbed use by primary school children in Lanarkshire. J Public Health 26(1):31–33Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dobbinson S, Wakefield M, Sambell N (2006) Access to commercial indoor tanning facilities by adults with highly sensitive skin and by under age youth: compliance tests at solarium centers in Melbourne, Australia. Eur J Cancer prev 15(5):424–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    World Health organization (1994) Ultraviolet radiation, environmental health criteria 160. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    World Health Organization INTERSUN (2003) The global UV project, a guide and compendium. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    World Health organization (2003) Artificial tanning sun-beds-risks and guidance. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Autier P (2004) Issues about solaria. In: D Hill, M Elwood, D English (eds) Prevention of skin cancer, de Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 157–176Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gallagher R, Spinelli J, Lee TK (2005) Tanning beds, sun-lamps, and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14(3):562–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on Artificial Ultraviolet (UV) Light and Skin Cancer (2007) The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: a systematic review. Int J cancer 120(5):1116–2112Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nelemans PJ, Rampen FHJ, Ruitr DJ, Verbeek ALM (1995) An addition to controversy on sunlight exposure and melanoma risk: a meta analysis approach. J Clin Epidemiol 48:1331–1342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    De Vries E, Boniol M, Severi G, Eggermont AMM, Autier P, Bataille V, Doré JF, Coebergh JWW (2005) Public awareness about risk factors could pose problems for case control studies: the example of sunbed use and cutaneous melanoma. Eur J Cancer 41:2150–2154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bataille V, Winett A, Sasieni P, Newton Bishop JA, Cuzick J (2004) Exposure to the sun and sunbeds and the risk of cutaneous melanoma in the UK: a case control study. Eur J Cancer 40(3):429–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Diffey B (2007) Sunbeds, beauty and melanoma. Br J Dermatol 157:215–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Faurschou A, Wulf CW (2007) Ecological analysis of the relation between sunbeds and skin cancer. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 23:120–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bajdik CD, Gallagher RP, Astrakiankis G, Hill GB, Fincham S, Mc Lean DI (1996) Non solar ultraviolet radiation radiation and the risk of basal squamous cell skin cancer. Br J Cancer 73:224–226Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Karages MR, Stannard VA, Mott LA, Slattery MJ, Spencer SK, Weinstock MA (2002) Use of tanning devices and risk of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 94:224Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stern RS, Lunder EJ (1998) Risk of squamous cell carcinoma and methoxsalen (psoralen) and UV-A radiation (PUVA) — A meta analysis. Arch Dermatol 134:1582–1585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Oliver H, Ferguson J, Moseley H (2007) Quantitative risk assessment of sunbeds: impact of new high power lamps. Br J Dermatol 157:350–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Geller A, Swetter S, Brooks K, Demierre MF, Yaroch A (2007) Screening, early detection, and trends for melanoma. Current status (2000–2006) and future directions, J Am Acad Dermatol 57:555–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Friedman RJ, Rigel DS, Kopf AW (1985) Early detection of malignant melanoma: the role of the physician examination and self examination of the skin. CA Cancer J Clin 35:130–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Abbasi NR, Shaw HM, Rigel DS, Friedman RJ, Mc Carthy WH, Osman I, Kopf AW, Polsky D (2008) Utility of lesion diameter in the clinical diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. Arch Dermatol 144(4):469–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Marghoob AA, Swindle LD, Moricz CZ, Sanchez Negron F, Slue B, Halpern A, Kopf (2003) Instruments and new technologies for the in vivo diagnosis of melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 49(5):777–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chamberlain AJ, Fritschi L, Kelly JW (2003) Nodular melanoma: patient's perception of presenting features and implications for earlier detection. J Am Acad Dermatol 32:706–709Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Moynihan GD (1994) The 3 Cs of melanoma: time for a change? J Am Acad Dermatol 30:510–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gonzalez A, West AJ, Pitha J V, Taira JW (1996) Small diameter invasive melanomas: clinical and pathologic characteristics. J Cutan Pathol 23:126–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hazen BP, Bhatia AC, Zaim T, Brodell R (1999) The clinical diagnosis of early malignant melanoma: expansion of the ABCD criteria to improve diagnostic sensitivity. Dermatol Online J 5(2):3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Abbasi NR, Swaw HM, Rigel DS, Friedman RJ, McCarthy W, Osman I, Kopf A, Polsky D (2004) Early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma, revisiting the ABCD criteria. JAMA 292:2771–2776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Healsmith MF, Bourke JF, Osborne JE, Graham-Brown RA (1994) An evaluation of the revised seven point checklist for the early diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Br J Dermatol 130(49):777–797Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Thomas L, Tranchand P, Berard F, Secchi T, Colin C, Moulin G (1998) Semiological value of ABCDE criteria in the diagnosis of cutaneous pigmented tumors. Dermatology 197:11–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Grob JJ, Bonerandi JJ (1998) The “ugly duckling” sign: identification of the common characteristics of nevi in an individual as a basis for melanoma screening. Arch Dermatol 134:103–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gachon J, Beaulieu P, Sei JF, Gouvernet J, Claudel JP, Lemaitre M, Richard MA, Grob JJ (2005) First prospective study of the recognition process in dermatological practice. Arch Dermatol 141:434–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Scope A, Dusza S, Halpern A, Rabinovitz H, Braun R, Zalaudek I, Argenziano G, Marghoob A (2008) The “ugly duckling” sign — agreement between observers. Arch Dermatol 144(1):58–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Berwick M, Begg CB, Fine JA, Roush GC, Barnhill RL (1996) Screening for cutaneous melanoma by skin self-examination. J Natl Cancer Inst 88:17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Carli P, De Giorgi V, Palli D, Maurichi A, Mulas P, Orlandi C, Imberti G, Stanganelli, Soma P, Dioguardi D, Catrical C, Betti R, Paoli S, Bottoni U, Lo Scocco G, Scalvenzi M, Gianotti B (2004) Self detected cutaneous melanomas in Italian patient. Clin Exp Dermatol 29:593–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Schwartz J, Wang T, Hamilton T, Lowe L, Sondak V, Johnson T (2002) Thin primary cutaneous melanomas-associated detection patterns, lesion characteristics, and patient characteristics. Cancer 95:1562–1568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Brady MS, Oliveria SA, Christos PJ, Berwick M, Coit D, Katz J, Halpern A (2000) Patterns of detection in patients with cutaneous melanoma-implications for secondary prevention. Cancer 89:342–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Epstein D, Lange J, Mofid M, Koch S (1999) Is physician detection associated with thinner melanomas? JAMA 281(7):640–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Miller DR, Geller AC, Wyatt SW, Halpern A, Howell JB, Cockerell C (1996) Melanoma awareness and self examination practices: results of a United States survey. J Am Acad Dermatol 34:962–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Koh HK, Miller DR, Geller AC, Clapp RW, Mercer MB, Lew RA (1992) Who discovers melanoma? Patterns from a population-based survey. J Am Acad Dermatol 26:914–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Carli P, De Giorgi V, Palli D, Maurichi A, Mulas P, Orlandi C, Imberti GL, Stanganelli I, Soma P, Dioguardi D, Catricala C, Betti R, Cecchi R, Bottoni U, Bonci A, Scalvenzi M, Gianotti B (2003) Dermatologist detection and self skin examination are associated with thinner melanomas. Results from a survey of the Italian multidisci-plinary group on melanoma. Arch Dermatol 139:607–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Aitken JF, Janda M, Lowe JB, Elwood M, Ring IT, Youl PH, Firman DW (2004) Prevalence of whole body skin self examination in a population at high risk for skin cancer (Australia). Cancer Causes Control 15:453–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Feldman S, Fleisher A (2000) Skin examinations and skin cancer prevention counseling by US physicians: a long way to go. J Am Acad Dermatol 43:234–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Geller A, O'riordan D, Oliveria S, Valvo S, Teich M, Halpern (2004) A overcoming obstacle to skin cancer examination and prevention counseling for high risk patients: results of a national survey of primary care physicians. J Am Board Fam Pract 17:416–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Brochez L, Verhaeghe E, Bleyen L, Naeyaert JM (2001) Diagnostic ability of general practitioners and dermatologists in discriminating pigmented skin lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol 44:979–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Oliveira S, Altman J, Christos P, Halpern A (2002) Use of nonphysician health care providers for skin cancer screening in the primary care setting. Prev Med 34:374–379Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Oliveira S, Sachs D, Belasco KT, Halpern AC (2003) adoption of new technologies for early detection of melanoma in dermatologic practice. J Am Acad Dermatol 49:955–959Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kelly JW, Yeatman JM, Regalia C, Mason G, Henham AP (1997) A high incidence of melanoma found in patients with multiple dysplastic naevi by photographic surveillance. Med J Aust 167:191–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    MacKie RM, McHenry P, Hole D (1993) Accelerated detection with prospective surveillance for cutaneous malignant melanoma in high risk groups. Lancet 341:1618–1620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schriner DL, Wagner RF, Glowczwskijr JR (1992) Photography for the early diagnosis of malignant melanoma in patients with atypical moles. Cutis 50:358–362Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Feit NE, Dusza S, Marghoob A (2004) Melanomas detected with the aid of total cutaneous photography. Br J Dermatol 150:706–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bafounta ML, Beauchet A, Aegerter P, Saiag P (2001) Is dermoscopy (epiluminescence microscopy) useful for the diagnosis of melanoma. Arch Dermatol 137:1343–1350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jemal A, Devesa S, Hartge P, Tucker M (2001) Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence among whites in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 93(9):678–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Geller A, Sober A, Zhang Z, Brooks D, Miller D, Halpern A, Gilchrest B (2002) Strategies for improving melanoma education and screening for Men > 50 years. Findings from the American Academy of Dermatology National Skin Cancer Screening Program. Cancer 95:1554–1561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Janda M, Youl P, Lowe J, Baade P, Elwood, Ring I, Aitken J (2006) What motivates Men age > 50 to participate in a screening program for melanoma? Cancer 107:815–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Youl P, Janda M, Lowe JB, Aitken JF (2005) Does the type of promotional material influence men's attendance at skin screening clinics? Health Promot J Aust 16(3):229–232Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hansson J, Ringborg U (2007) Risk groups for skin cancer and aspects on preventive management. In: Ringborg U, Brandberg Y, Breitbart E, Greinert R (eds) Skin Cancer prevention Informa Healthcare, New York, LondonGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Elwood JM, Gallagher RP, Hill GB, Spinelli JJ, Pearson JC, Threlfall W (1984) Pigmentation and skin reaction to sun as risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: Western Canada Melanoma Study. Br Med J (clin Res ED) 288(6411):99–102Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bliss JM, Ford D, Swerdlow AJ, Armstrong BK, Cristofolini M, Elwood JM, Green A, Holly EA, Mack T, Mac KIe RM et al (1995) Risk of cutaneous melanoma associated with pigmentation characteristics and freckling: systematic overview of 10 case-control studies. The international Melanoma analysis group (IMAGE). Int J Cancer 62(4):367–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Naldi L, Lorenzo Imberti G, Parazzini F, Gallus S, La Vecchia C (2000) Pigmentary traits, modalities of sun reaction, history of sunburns, and melanocytic nevi as risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma in the Italian population: results of a collaborative case control study. Cancer 88(12):2703–2710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Tabenkin H, Tamir A, Sperber AD, Shapira M, Shvartzman P (1999) A case control study of malignant melanoma in Israeli Kibbutzim. Isr Med Assoc J 1(3):154–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Garbe C, Bettner P, Weiss J, Soyer HP, Stocker U, Kruger S, Roser M, Weckbecker J, Panizzon R, Bahmer F (1994) Risk factors for developing cutaneous melanoma and criteria for identifying persons at risk: multicenter case control study of the central melanoma registry of the German der-matological society. J Invest Dermatol 102(5):695–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Marrett LD, King WD, Walter SD, From L (1992) Use of host factors to identify people at high risk for cutaneous melanoma. CMAJ 147(4):445–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Swerdlow A, English J, Mac Kie RM et al (1986) Benign melanocytic naevi asa risk factor for malignant melanoma. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 292(6535):1555–1559Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Holly E, Kelly J, Shpall S, Chiu SH (1987) Markers for relative risk factor for malignant melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 17(3):459–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Garbe C, Kruger S, Stadler R, Guggenmoos-Holzman I, Orfanos CE (1989) Markers and relative risk in a German population for developing malignant melanoma. Int J Dermatol 28(8):517–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Augustsson A, Stiener U, Suurkula M, Rosdahl I (1991) Prevalence of common and dysplactic nevi in a Swedish population. Br J Dermatol 124(2):152–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bataille V, Bishop JA, Sasieni P, Swerdlow AJ, Pinney E, Griffiths K, Cusick J (1996) Risk of cutaneous melanoma in relation to the numbers, types and sites of naevi: a case control study. Br J Cancer 73(12):1605–1611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Garbe C, Bettner P, Weiss J, Soyer HP, Stocker U, Kruger S, Roser M, Weckbecker J, Panizzon R, Bahmer F et al (1994) Risk factors for developing cutaneous melanoma and criteria for identifying persons at risk: multicenter case control study of the central melanoma registry of the German der-matological society. J Invest Dermatol 102(5):695–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Garbe C, Buttner P, Weiss J, Soyer HP, Stocker U, Kruger S, Roser M, Weckbecker J, Panizzon R, Bahmer F et al (1994) Associated factors in the prevalence of more than 50 common melanocytic nevi, atypical melanocytic nevi, and actinic lentigines: multicenter case control study of the central malignant melanoma Registry of the German Dermatological Society. J Invest Dermatol 102(5):700–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Nordlund JJ, Kirkwood J, Forget BM, Scheibner A, Albert DM, Lerner E, Milton GW (1985) Demographic study of clinically atypical (dysplastic nevi)in patients with melanoma and comparison subjects. Cancer Res 45(4):1855–1861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Grob JJ, Gouvernet J, AYmar D, Mostaque A, Romano MH, Collet AM, Noe MC, Diconstanzo MP, Bonerandi JJ (1990) Count of benign melanocytic nevi as a major indicator of risk for non familial nodular and superficial spreading melanoma. Cancer 66(2):387–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Carli P, Biggeri A, Gianotti B (1995) Malignant melanoma in Italy: risks associated with common and clinically atypical melanocytic nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol 32(5 pt 1):734–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Grulich AE, Bataille V, Swerdlow AJ, Newton-Bishop JA, Cuzick J, Hersey P, Mc Carthy WH (1996) Naevi and pigmentary characteristics as risk factors for melanoma in a high risk population: a case control study in New South Wales, Australia. Int J Cancer 67(4):485–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Marks R, Dorevitch AP, Mason G (1990) Do all melanomas come from “moles”? A study of the histological association between melanocytic naevi and melanoma. Australas J Dermatol 31(2):77–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Platz A, Ringborg U, Hansson J (2000) Hereditary cutaneous melanoma. Semin Cancer Biol 10(4):319–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ford D, Bliss JM, Swerdlow AJ, Armstrong BK, Franceschi S, Green A, Holly EA, Mack T, McKie RM, Osterlind A (1995) Risk of cutaneous melanoma associated with a family history of the disease. The International Melanoma analysis group (IMAGE). Int J Cancer 62(4):377–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Greene MH, Clark WH, Tucker MA, Elder DE, Kraemer KH, Fraser MC, Bondi EE, Guerry D, Tuthill R, Hamilton R, LaRossa D (1980) Precursor naevi in cutaneous melanoma: a proposed nomenclature. Lancet 2(8202):1024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lowe JB, Ball J, Lynch BM, Baldwin L, Janda M, Stanton WR, Aitken JF (2004) Acceptability and feasibility of a community — based screening program for melanoma in Australia. Health Promot Int 19:437–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Aitken JF, Janda M, Elwood M, Youl PH, Ring IT, Lowe JB (2006) Clinical outcomes from skin screening program. J Am Acad Dermatol 54:105–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Schneider JS, Moore DH, Mendelsohn ML (2008) Screening program reduced melanoma mortality at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1984 to 1996. J Am Acad Dermatol 58:741–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Geller AC (2002) Screening for melanoma. Dermatol Clin 20:629–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Chen S, Bravata DM, Weil E, Olkin I (2006) Diagnosing and managing cutaneous pigmented lesions: primary care physicians versus dermatologists. J Gen Intern Med 21:678–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Stryker JE, Solky BA, Emmons KM (2005) A content analysis of next coverage of skin cancer prevention and detection, 1979 to 2003. Arch Dermatol 141:491–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Robinson June, Turrisi Rob, Stapleton Jerod (2007) Examination of mediating variables in a partner assistance designed to increase performance of skin self examination. J Am Acad Dermatol 56:391–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Martin RA, Weinstock M, Risica P, Smith K, Rakowski W (2007) Factors associated with thorough skin self examination for the early detection of melanoma. JEADV 21:1074–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Oliveira S, Christos P, Halpern A, Fine J, Barnhill R (1999) Evaluation of factors associated with skin self examination. Cancer epidemiol Biomarlers Prev 8:s971–8Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Véronique del Marmol
    • 1
  • Veronique Bataille
  • Myrto-Georgia Trakatelli
  • Claas Ulrich
  1. 1.Service de DermatologieHopital Erasme, Université Libre de BruxellesBruxellesBelgium

Personalised recommendations