Nearshore Coastal Processes Between Karwar and Bhatal, Central West Coast of India: Implications for Pollution Dispersion

  • Viswanath S. Hedge
  • G. Shalini
  • Shailesh Nayak
  • Ajay S. Rajawat
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


In the present paper coastal processes between Karwar and Bhatkal, Central West Coast of India is discussed based on the Indian Remote Sensing program – 4 Ocean Color Monitor (IRS P4-OCM) data, wind and wave data and wave refraction derived near shore drift pattern, salinity condition and beach morphological changes. Near shore pollution dispersion pattern is inferred for the coastal region between Karwar and Bhatkal based on the observed coastal processes. Prevailing salinity conditions suggest upwelling during pre-monsoon to early monsoon, but become less effective during late monsoon, and down welling become important during winter. The upwelling are related to the combined effect of local wind and regional northward subsurface flow due to regional phenomena during pre-monsoon; South West-West approach of the waves for North -North West oriented coast and winter cooling effect during November and December respectively. The prevailing calm weather conditions due to low wave activities during December-January months facilitate tidal currents to dominate. The tidal currents move the water body towards seaward. Seasonal variations in the beach profiles indicated seaward movement of materials during monsoon, landward movement during post-monsoon and wave induced circulation patterns during pre-monsoon. In the vicinity of the river mouths, however, movement of the materials is dominantly northward. Sediments on the beach ranged from fine to medium grained, moderately to well sorted, which suggest dominance of waves on the coastal processes. Wave refraction derived alongshore drift pattern reveal seasonal variation in the direction of the current. IRS-P4 OCM data revealed 3 distinct pattern of sediment dispersion. Trend 1- during early monsoon, plume like sediment dispersion seaward especially in the mouths of the rivers; Trend 2- with the onset of monsoon, there is northerly transport of sediments with anticlockwise pattern with in the linear plumes; Trend-3 during post-monsoon, sediment concentration is less and it is southward. These patterns can be used to trace pollutants dispersion in the coastal sea.


River Mouth Total Suspended Sediment Post Monsoon Beach Profile Coastal Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bhat MS, Chavadi VC, Hegde VS (2003) Morphology and sediment movement in a monsoon influenced open beach at the Gangavali, near Gokarna (Central West Coast of India). Indian J Mar Sci 32(1): 31-36Google Scholar
  2. Chandramohan P, Nayak BU (1991) Long shore sediment transport along the Indian coast. Indian J Mar Sci 20, pp.110-114.Google Scholar
  3. Chandramohan P, Nayak BU, Raju VS (1988) Application of longshore transport equation to the Andhra coast, East Coast of India. J Coastal Engineering 12: 285-297 Chandramohan P, Sunil Kumar V, Nayak BU, Raju NSN (1994) Surf zone dynamics along the coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, West Coast of India. Indian J Mar Sci 23, pp.189-194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chavadi VC, Hegde VS (1989) A note on textural characteristics of the beach sands in the vicinity of the Gangavali river mouth, Uttara Kannada Dist, Karnataka. Mahasagar 22. pp.89-97.Google Scholar
  5. Chavadi VC, Hegde VS, Nalawadi AR, Jalihal AA (1989) Erosion and deposition patterns of the beaches near Gangavali river mouth on the Northern Karnataka Coast. Geological Survey of India Spl Publ 24: 355-359.Google Scholar
  6. Chavadi VC, Bannur CR, Hanamgond PT, Korkoppa MM (1999) Morphology and sediment characteristics of Uttara Kannada beach, West Coast of India. Indian J. Geomorphology 4 (1 &2): 9-34.Google Scholar
  7. Davis JL (1964) A morphogenic approach to world shorelines. Z. Geomorphology 8: 27-42.Google Scholar
  8. Davis JL, Hayes MO (1984) What is a wave-dominated coast? Mar Geol 80: 313-329.Google Scholar
  9. Emery KO (1961) A simple method of measuring beach profiles. Limnol Oceanog 6: .90-93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Folk RL, Ward WC (1957) Brazos river bar study on the significance of grain size parameters. J Sed Petrology 27: 514-529.Google Scholar
  11. Hanamgond PT, Hegde VS (2002) Morphodynamic state of the beaches of Uttara Kannada district, West Coast of India, A monograph Pub SDMCET Dharwad: 75.Google Scholar
  12. Hareeshkumar PV, Pradeepkumar T, Mathew B, Josheph MX (1990) Upper ocean thermal structure off Karwar (West Coast of India) during the withdrawal phase of monsson-1987, Indian J Mar Sci 19(1): 36-41.Google Scholar
  13. Hareeshkumar PV, Mathew B (1997) Salinity distribution in the Arabian Sea. Indian J Mar Sci 26: 271-277.Google Scholar
  14. Hegde VS, Koti BK, Hanamgond PT, Shalini G, Girish KH (2007) Depositional environment of a tropical estuarine beach, located in the vicinity of Sharavati River mouth, Central West Coast of India. J Geol Soc India 69: 1279-1284.Google Scholar
  15. Ingram RL (1970) Sieve analysis procedures, in: ‘Sedimentary Petrology’: 40-67. New-York, Wiley Inter-science.Google Scholar
  16. Kunte PD, Wagle BG (1993) Determination of net Shore Drift Direction Of Central West Coast Of India Using Remotely Sensed Data. J Coast Res 9: 811-822.Google Scholar
  17. Kunte PD, Wagle BG (2001) Littoral transport studies along West Coast of India-A review. Indian J Mar Sci 30: 57-64.Google Scholar
  18. Murthy CS, Veerayya M (1985) Long shore current and associated sediment transport in the near shore areas of Kerala and Goa, West Coast of India. Mahasagar 18(2): 163-177.Google Scholar
  19. Nayak GN (1996) Grain size parameters as indicator of sediment movement around a river mouth near Karwar, West Coast of India. Indian J Mar Sci 25: 346-348.Google Scholar
  20. Nayak GN (1986) Studies of morphology, texture and mineralogy of the beaches along North Karnataka coast, around Karwar, India. PhD. thesis, Karnatak University, Dharwad: 210.Google Scholar
  21. Pickard GL, Emery WJ (1982) Descriptive physical oceanography. Pergomon, Oxford: 249.Google Scholar
  22. Ramana IV, Rao KH, Rao MV, Choudhury SB, Bhan SK (2000) Data processing scheme for the retrieval of oceanic parameters using IRS- P4 OCM data. Proceedings of the 5$th$ PORSEC 2000, held at Goa, India during 5-8, December 2000: 765-769.Google Scholar
  23. Prasad JS, Rajawat AS, Pradhan Y, Chouhan OS, Nayak SR (2002) Retrieval of sea velocities using sequential Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) data. Indian Acad Sci. 3: 189-195.Google Scholar
  24. Rajawat AS, Mukhesh Gupta, Pradhan Y, Thomoskutty AV, Nayak SR (2005) Coastal Processes along the Indian Coast- Case studies based on synergistic use of IRS-P4 OCM and IRS -1C/1D data. Indian J Mar Sci 34(4): 459-472.Google Scholar
  25. Sahu KC (1987) Environmental impact of coal utilization in India-A geochemical approach. J Geol Soc India 30: 402-407.Google Scholar
  26. Short AD (1991) Macro-Meso tidal beach morphodynamics- An overview. J Coast Res 72: 417-436Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Viswanath S. Hedge
  • G. Shalini
  • Shailesh Nayak
  • Ajay S. Rajawat

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations