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Ozone-Based Technologies in Water and Wastewater Treatment

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Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC5,volume 5 / 5S / 5S/2)

Abstract

Ozone is a strong oxidant that can be used in the potabilization of surface or ground water as well as in wastewater treatment to remove microorganisms, inorganic ions and organic pollutants. The oldest use of ozone is as a biocide in drinking water potabilization. The integral ozone exposure required for a given degree of disinfection can be calculated from the deactivation kinetic constant of the microorganism. Ozone removes iron, manganese and arsenic from water by oxidation to an insoluble form that is further separated by filtration. Both processes require ozone in molecular form, but the removal of organic pollutants that are refractory to other treatments can be possible only by exploiting the indirect radical reactions that take place during ozonation. Ozone decomposes in water, especially when hydrogen peroxide is present, to yield the hydroxyl radical, the strongest oxidizer available in water treatment. Models for the ozonation process are required to adjust the ozone dosing to the desired degree of removal of a given pollutant or an aggregate measure of pollution. Mineralization, defined as the removal of organic carbon, has been accomplished in wastewaters from urban and domestic treatment plants. The results show that the logarithmic decrease of TOC as a function of the integral ozone exposure usually presents two zones with different kinetic parameters. Among advanced oxidation processes, a promising alternative currently under development is the use of ozone in combination with solid catalysts. The mechanism of catalytic ozonation is not clear, but in the case of metal oxides, the adsorption of ozone or organic compounds on Lewis acid sites is only possible near the point of zero charge of the surface. Activated carbon seems to behave as an initiator of ozone decomposition, a role that may also occur with other types of catalysts. Some results on the mineralization of water with the drugs naproxen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory) and carbamazepine (anticonvulsant) are presented using titanium dioxide as catalyst.

Keywords

  • Advanced oxidation processes
  • Disinfection
  • Kinetic models
  • Ozonation
  • Solid catalysts

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Abbreviations

a:

Specific gas-liquid interfacial area [m−1]

Alk:

Alkalinity [mg CaCO3 L−1]

c A :

Concentration of a given compound [M]

\({C_{{O_3}}}\) :

Concentration of dissolved ozone in water [M]

\(C_{{O_3}}^*\) :

Equilibrium concentration of dissolved ozone in water [M]

c s :

Bulk concentration of catalyst [kgm−3]

c t :

Concentration of surface sites of catalyst [mol kg−1]

\(c{t_{{O_3}}},c{t_{10}}\) :

Concentration-time exposure parameter for ozone [M s]

d b :

Bubble diameter [m]

\({D_{{O_2}}}\) :

Diffusivity of oxygen [m2 s−1]

\({D_{{O_3}}}\) :

Diffusivity of ozone [m2 s−1]

E:

Enhancement factor

Ha:

Hatta number

H e :

Henry’s law constant [atm mole fraction−1]

i:

Ionic strength [M−1]

k 1, k 2 :

Rate constants for the catalytic decomposition of ozone [m3 kg−1 s−1]

k a :

Kinetic constant of adsorption [L kg −1cat s−1]

k −a :

Kinetic constant of desorption [mol kg −1cat s−1]

k c :

Kinetic constant of catalytic ozonation [L kg −1cat S−1]

k d :

Kinetic constant of ozone decomposition [units depending on the order of reaction]

k D, k Di :

Kinetic constants for direct reaction with ozone [L mol−1 s−1]

k HO. :

Kinetic constant for reactions with hydroxyl radical [L mol−1 s−1]

\({k_{H{O^ - }}}\) :

Kinetic constants of the hydroxide initiation of ozone decomposition [M−1 s−1]

\({k_{H{O_2}^ - }}\) :

Kinetic constants of the hydroperoxide initiation of ozone decomposition [M−1 s−1]

k L :

Liquid phase individual mass transfer coefficient [m s−1]

k L a :

Volumetric mass transfer coefficient [s−1]

k N :

Kinetic constant for microorganism deactivation [M−1 s−1]

k o :

Kinetic constant of the surface oxidation process [L kg −1cat S−1]

\({k_{{O_3}}}\) :

Kinetic constant for direct reaction with ozone [L mol−1 s−1]

k r :

Kinetic constant of termination reactions [L mol−1 s−1]

K a :

Adsorption equilibrium constant [L mol−1]

K ox :

Equilibrium constant for the surface oxidation process [L mol−1]

\({N_{{O_3}}}\) :

Absorption rate or flux of ozone [mol m−2 s−1]

pHPZC :

pH of the point of zero charge of a surface

\({P_{{O_3}}}\) :

Partial pressure of ozone in gas [Pa]

r d :

Rate of ozone decomposition [mol m−3 s−1]

R:

Kinetic constant for TOC removal during ozonation [L mol−1 s−1]

R ct :

Hydroxyl ozone ratio defined by Eq. 29

Sc:

Schmidt number [μLρ −1L \(D_{{O_3}}^{ - 1}\)]

TOC:

Total organic carbon [mg L−1]

TOCc :

Organic carbon refractory to ozonation [mg L−1]

TOC *c :

Organic carbon in oxalate, acetate and formiate [mg L−1]

TOCo :

Initial total organic carbon [mg L−1]

TOD:

Total ozone dose transferred [mol L−1]

u g :

Superficial gas velocity [m s−1]

X:

Ozone dose transfer at the beginning of the ozonation [mol L−1]

z:

Stoichiometric coefficient

ε g :

Gas holdup

μ L :

Liquid viscosity [kgm−1 s−1]

ρ L :

Liquid density [kgm−3]

σ L :

Surface tension [N m−1]

τ:

Hydraulic retention time [s]

θ:

Unit fraction of catalyst occupied sites

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Rodríguez, A. et al. (2008). Ozone-Based Technologies in Water and Wastewater Treatment. In: Barceló, D., Petrovic, M. (eds) Emerging Contaminants from Industrial and Municipal Waste. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol 5 / 5S / 5S/2. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-79210-9_4

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