• Paola Kuschnir
  • Gustavo Avegliano
  • Marcelo Trivi
  • Ricardo Ronderos
Part of the Learning Imaging book series (LEARN)


From its first steps in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, echocardiography imaging, such as M-mode, 2-D echocardiography and cardiovascular Doppler, has made tremendous advances until today. From primitive equipment that encouraged creativity and imagination, to 3-D echo, which shows structures the way surgeons see them during cardiac surgery, it has been an unthinkable journey for the pioneers in echocardiography.

Nowadays, echocardiography is the most widely used imaging technique for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. This expansion was the result of a number of advantages such as its non-invasive low-risk nature, easy transportation of equipment, simplicity, and low cost. Moreover, there has been considerable improvement in image quality as a result of the development of transesophageal echocardiography and the technological advance of transthoracic transducers.


Mitral Valve Left Atrium Mitral Regurgitation Aortic Dissection Tricuspid Valve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading


  1. Textbook of Clinical Echocardiography, 3rd ed. Catherine M. Otto (2004) Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Feigenbaum's Echocardiography. Harvey Feigenbaum, William Armstrong (2004) Lippincott Williams &Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  3. The Echo Manual. Jae K. Oh, James B. Seward (2006) Lippincott Williams &Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  4. Atlas of Transesophageal Echocardiography. Navin C. Nanda, Michael J. Domanski (2006) Lippincott Williams &Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  5. Doppler Myocardial Imaging. A Textbook. George.R Sutherland, Liv Hatle, Piet Claus Jan D'hooge, Bart Bijnens (2006) BSWK, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  6. Atlas of Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography: Surgical and Radiologic Correlations, Textbook with DVD. Donald Oxorn; Catherine M. Otto (2007) Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  7. 3-D Echocardiography, An Issue of Cardiology Clinics. Edward A. Gill, N. Nanda (2007) Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  8. López de Sá E, López-Sendón JL, Rubio R. Infarto agudo de miocardio: clínica, evolución y complicaciones. In: Delcán JL (ed) Cardiopatía isquémica. ENE ediciones, Madrid, 1999; 583–584Google Scholar
  9. Rotura Cardiaca Isquémica. Text book. Figueras J, Soler Soler J (2001) Editorial, DoymaGoogle Scholar
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  11. Interactive CD of EchocardiographyGoogle Scholar
  12. Clinical Echocardiography. Arturo Evangelista, Herminio Garcia del Castillo. Co-authors: Teresa Gonzalez Alujas, Gustavo Avegliano, Zamira Bosch. The Academy of Medical Ultrasound. Supported by GE Healthcare, 2004Google Scholar


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paola Kuschnir
    • 1
  • Gustavo Avegliano
    • 2
  • Marcelo Trivi
    • 3
  • Ricardo Ronderos
    • 4
  1. 1.Centro de Diagnóstico Enrique RossiBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Cardiac Imaging DepartmentInstituto Cardiovascular de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.Research Group for Computational Imaging & Simulation Technologies in Biomedicine (CISTIB), Department of Information and Communication TechnologiesUniversitat Pompeu FabraBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Cardiac Imaging DepartmentInstituto Cardiovascular de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina

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