Breast Asymmetries: A Working Formulation

  • Gianpiero Gravante
  • Antonino Araco
  • Valerio Cervelli


Breast asymmetry is an asymmetric morphology of the shape, volume, and position of breasts and/or of the nipple–areola complex. The authors studied breast asymmetries that were classified into six categories. The first set of classifications includes hypertrophy-related breast asymmetry with 1) asymmetric hypertrophy of both breasts, 2) hypertrophy with a normal contralateral breast, and 3) hypertrophy with a hypoplastic contralateral breast. The second group of classifications includes hypoplastic-related breast asymmetry with 4) a normal contralateral breast and 5) a hypoplastic contralateral breast. The final classification is 6) ptosis-related asymmetry. The surgical correction of each is described. The morphologic classification of breast asymmetry is a useful guide for aesthetic surgeons when choosing a surgical approach.


Contralateral Breast Reduction Mammaplasty Areola Complex Breast Asymmetry Augmentation Mammaplasty 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianpiero Gravante
    • 1
  • Antonino Araco
    • 2
  • Valerio Cervelli
    • 3
  1. 1.Research Fellow of Physiology,University of Tor VergataCiampinoItaly
  2. 2.Attending SurgeonDolan Park HospitalTardebiggeUK
  3. 3.Plastic SurgeryUniversity of Tor VergataRomeItaly

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